Japanese musical scales
A variety of musical scales are used in traditional Japanese music. While a twelve-tone (dodecaphonic) Chinese scale has influenced Japanese music since the Heian period, in practice Japanese traditional music is often based on pentatonic (five tone) or heptatonic (seven tone) scales. In some instances, harmonic minor, like in the famous piece Sakura Sakura, is used, while the melodic minor is virtually unused.
- Koizumi Fumio. Musical Scales in Japanese Music. Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1977
- Sir Francis Taylor Piggott, Thomas Lea Southgate. The Music and Musical Instruments of Japan. B.T. Batsford, 1893
- William P. Malm. Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments. Kodansha International, 2000. ISBN 4770023952, 9784770023957
- Cargill Gilston Knott. Remarks on Japanese musical scales. Asiatic Society of Japan, 1891