Jacques Rancière (French: [ʁɑ̃sjɛʁ]; born 1940) is a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee and former Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris VIII: Vincennes—Saint-Denis who came to prominence when he co-authored Reading Capital (1968), with the structuralist Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser.
|Alma mater||École Normale Supérieure|
|Institutions||University of Paris VIII|
|Political Philosophy, Aesthetics, Philosophy of History, Philosophy of Education|
|Theories of democracy, disagreement, visual aesthetics, "part of no part", Distribution of the Sensible,|
Life and work
Rancière contributed to the influential volume Reading Capital before publicly breaking with Althusser over his attitude toward the May 1968 student uprising in Paris; Rancière felt Althusser's theoretical stance did not leave enough room for spontaneous popular uprising.
Since then, Rancière has departed from the path set by his teacher and published a series of works probing the concepts that make up our understanding of political discourse, such as ideology and proletariat. He sought to address whether the working class in fact exists, and how the masses of workers that thinkers like Althusser referred to continuously enter into a relationship with knowledge, particularly the limits of philosophers' knowledge with respect to the proletariat. An example of this line of thinking is Rancière's book entitled Le philosophe et ses pauvres (The Philosopher and His Poor, 1983), a book about the role of the poor in the intellectual lives of philosophers.
From 1975-81, Rancière was a figurehead for the Journal Les Révoltes Logiques. Forming partly out of a philosophy seminar on Workers’ history that Rancière gave at Vincennes, it drew together philosophers and historians for a radical political intervention into French thought after the May 1968 uprisings. Its title acting as both a reference to Arthur Rimbaud’s poem, Democratie (‘Nous Massacrerons les revoltes logiques’ – ‘We’ll smash all logic revolts.’) and the Maoist Cultural Revolutionary slogan adopted by the Gauche Prolétarienne group, of which some of Les Rèvoltes Logiques' members were active within, ‘On a raison de se revolter’ – ‘It is right to revolt.’, the Journal attempted to interrogate and contest the historiographic and political norms around the representation of workers’ and social history. Writing, along with figures like feminist historian Genevieve Fraisse, Rancière and others attempted to reveal the complexity, contradictions and diversity of ‘thought and history from below’. In its fifteen ordinary issues, the collective wished to overcome the historiographic norms in which the working class were given historical treatment but rendered voiceless, homogeneous and pre-theoretical; instead, they allowed workers to speak for themselves, and interrogated their words seriously.
More recently Rancière has written on the topic of human rights and specifically the role of international human rights organizations in asserting the authority to determine which groups of people, again the problem of masses, justify human rights interventions and even war.
Rancière's book, The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation (original title Le Maître ignorant: Cinq leçons sur l'émancipation intellectuelle, published in 1987) was written for educators and educators-to-be. Through the story of Joseph Jacotot, Rancière challenges his readers to consider equality as a starting point rather than a destination. In doing so, he asks educators to abandon the themes and rhetoric of cultural deficiency and salvation. Rather than requiring informed schoolmasters to guide students towards prescribed and alienating ends, Rancière argues that educators can channel the equal intelligence in all to facilitate their intellectual growth in virtually unlimited directions. The schoolmaster need not know anything (and may be ignorant). Rancière begins with the premises that all are of equal intelligence and that any collective educational exercise founded on this principle can provide the insights from which knowledge is constructed. He claims that the poor and disenfranchised should feel perfectly able to teach themselves whatever it is they want to know. Furthermore, anyone can lead, and the oppressed should not feel bound to experts or reliant on others for their intellectual emancipation.
Jacotot advocated the 'equality of intelligence' and claimed that an ignorant person could teach another ignorant person. Rancière developed this idea in The Ignorant Schoolmaster, saying that “there is stultification whenever one intelligence is subordinated to another ... whoever teaches without emancipating stultifies”.
Rancier's political philosophy is characterized by a number of key concepts: politics, disagreement, police, equality, post-democracy.
Disagreement — an insurmountable conflict between people, which is inherent in human nature and manifests itself in a speech situation when one of the interlocutors understands and does not understand the other at the same time.
Police — a symbolic ordering of the social, aimed at determining the share of participation or lack of participation in each part. The concept goes back to the work of Michel Foucault in the 1970s.
Equality — a set of practices aimed at certifying the equality of anyone with anyone.
In 2006, it was reported that Rancière's aesthetic theory had become a point of reference in the visual arts, and Rancière has lectured at such art world events as the Frieze Art Fair. Former French presidential candidate Ségolène Royal described Rancière as her favourite philosopher. Among those intellectuals influenced by his work, Gabriel Rockhill has developed a new paradigm for thinking the historical relation between aesthetics and politics in close dialogue with Rancière's writings.
- Rancière's work in English translation
- Reading Capital (1968) (with Louis Althusser, Roger Establet, Pierre Macherey and Étienne Balibar in the French original edition)
- “Reply to Levy”. Telos 33 (Fall 1977). New York: Telos Press.
- The Nights of Labor: The Workers' Dream in Nineteenth-Century France (1989) ISBN 0-87722-833-7.
- Nights of Labor
- The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation (1987, tr. 1991) - ISBN 0-8047-1969-1.
- The Names of History: On the Poetics of Knowledge (1994) - This is a brief book, arguing for an epistemological critique of the methods and goals of the traditional study of history. It has been influential in the philosophy of history
- On the Shores of Politics (1995): ISBN 0-86091-637-5
- Disagreement: Politics and Philosophy (1998) ISBN 0-8166-2844-0.
- Short Voyages to the Land of the People (2003): ISBN 0-8047-3682-0
- The Politics of Aesthetics: The Distribution of the Sensible, ed. and transl. by Gabriel Rockhill (2004): ISBN 978-0-8264-8954-8
- The Philosopher and His Poor, ed. Andrew Parker, co-trans. John Drury, Corinne Oster, and Andrew Parker (2004): ISBN 978-0-8223-3274-9
- The Future of the Image (2007): ISBN 1-84467-107-0
- Hatred of Democracy (2007): ISBN 978-1-84467-098-7
- The Aesthetic Unconscious (2009), transl., Debra Keates & James Swenson: ISBN 978-0-7456-4644-2
- The Emancipated Spectator (2010): ISBN 978-1-84467-343-8
- Dissensus: On Politics and Aesthetics (2010): ISBN 978-1-84706-445-5
- Chronicles of Consensual Times (2010), tr. by Steven Corcoran: ISBN 978-0-8264-4288-8
- The Politics of Literature (2011), tr. by Julie Rose: ISBN 978-0-7456-4531-5
- Staging the People: The Proletarian and His Double (2011), tr. by David Fernbach: ISBN 978-1-84467-697-2
- Althusser's Lesson (2011) - The first English translation of Rancière’s first book, in which he explores and begins to move beyond the thought of his mentor, Louis Althusser (tr. by Emiliano Battista) ISBN 978-1-4411-0805-0
- Mute Speech: Literature, Critical Theory, and Politics (2011), tr. by James Swenson: ISBN 978-0-231-15103-0
- Mallarmé: The Politics of the Siren (2011), tr. by Steven Corcoran: ISBN 978-0-8264-3840-9
- Aisthesis: Scenes from the Aesthetic Regime of Art (2013), tr. by Zakir Paul: ISBN 978-1-78168-089-6
- Bela Tarr, the Time After (2013), tr. by Erik Beranek: ISBN 978-1937561154
- Modern Times (2017) : ISBN 978-953-7372-31-6 - 4 essays on temporality in art and politics, originally written in English
- "A coffee with Jacques Rancière Beneath the Acropolis" (2018), Babylonia
- Selected articles in English
- "Ten Theses on Politics Theory & Event 2001
- "Who Is the Subject of the Rights of Man?" The South Atlantic Quarterly, Volume 103, Number 2/3, Spring/Summer 2004, pp. 297–310
- "Is there a Deleuzian Aesthetics?" Tr. Radmila Djordjevic, Qui Parle?, Volume 14, Number 2, 2004, pp. 1–14
- "The Thread of the Novel" Novel: A Forum on Fiction, Volume 47, Number 2, 2014, pp. 196–209
- Further reading
- The Lessons of Rancière. Samuel A. Chambers. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).
- Jacques Rancière: An Introduction, by Joseph Tanke. (New York & London: Continuum, 2011).
- Jacques Rancière: Politics, History, Aesthetics. Eds. Phil Watts and Gabriel Rockhill. (Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2009). Also includes an afterword by Rancière: "The Method of Equality: An Answer to Some Questions".
- Politica delle immagini. Su Jacques Rancière, ed. by Roberto De Gaetano (Cosenza: Pellegrini, 2011). Includes essays by Rancière.
- The Political Thought of Jacques Rancière. Todd May (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008).
- Rancière's Sentiments. Davide Panagia (Durham: Duke University Press, 2018).
- Jacques Rancière: Key Concepts. Ed. Jean-Phillipe Deranty (Durham: Acumen, 2010).
- Jacques Rancière: Education, Truth, Emancipation. Charles Bingham and Gert Biesta (London & New York: Continuum, 2010). Also includes an essay by Rancière: "On Ignorant Schoolmasters".
- Jacques Rancière. "What Makes Images Unacceptable?" on YouTube. Pacific Northwest College of Art. Portland, Oregon, February 29, 2008.
- Jacques Rancière. "Nights of Labour," on YouTube. Sarai Centre for the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS). Video Lecture. February 6, 2009.
- Jacques Rancière. "Negation and Cinematic Vertigo." European Graduate School. Video Lecture. August 2009.
- Jacques Rancière. "The Edge of Fiction," on YouTube. The Ohio State University. Video Lecture. September 21, 2017.
- "Representation Against Democracy" Jacques Rancière on the French Presidential Elections, 2017
- "We Are Always Ignorant of our own Effects", Jacques Rancière interviewed by Pablo Bustinduy, in The Conversant, 2013
- "Democracy Means Equality", interview in Radical Philosophy
- Politics and Aesthetics, Jacques Ranciere interviewed by Peter Hallward, 2003
- Eurozine interview with Ranciere, 2006
- "Art Is Going Elsewhere. And Politics Has to Catch It", Jacques Rancière interviewed by Sudeep Dasgupta, 2008
- 'The Politics of Aesthetics': Jacques Rancière Interviewed by Nicolas Vieillescazes this interview piece was first posted: 12-01-09 at the website of Naked Punch
- Jacques Rancière interviewed by Rye Dag Holmboe for The White Review
- "Aesthetics against Incarnation: An Interview by Anne Marie Oliver," Critical Inquiry, 2008
- (in French) "Jean-Luc Godard, La religion de l'art. Entretien avec Jacques Rancière" paru dans CinémAction, « Où en est le God-Art ? », n° 109, 2003, pp. 106–112, reproduit sur le site d'analyse L'oBservatoire (simple appareil).
- See: Jacques Rancière Faculty Profile Archived 2010-04-17 at the Wayback Machine at European Graduate School
- Ben Davis. Rancière, For Dummies. The Politics of Aesthetics. Book Review.
- Ross, Kristin (2002). May 1968 and its Afterlives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-226-72797-1.
- Ross, Kristin (2002). May 1968 and its Afterlives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-226-72797-1.
- Davis, Oliver (2010). Jacques Ranciere: Key Contemporary Thinkers. Cambridge: Polity. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7456-4654-1.
- Deranty, Jean-Phillipe (2010). Jacques Rancière: Key Concepts. Durham: Acumen. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-84465-233-4.
- Jacques Ranciere (1981). The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation. pp. 13, 18.
- Molly Quinn. "Committing (to) Ignorance". Epistemologies of Ignorance in Education. pp. 31–52.
- The Edinburgh Dictionary of Continental Philosophy / John Protevi (ed.) – Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-7486-1715-9, ISBN 0-7486-1716-7
- May, Todd. The Political Thought of Jacques Rancière: Creating Equality. – PA, Edinburgh: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-271-03449-2, ISBN 978-0-271-03450-8
- Patrice Bollon; Mark K. Jensen (December 2006). "Translation: Jacques Rancière, the philosopher who inspires Ségolène Royal". United for Peace of Pierce County, WA. Paris Match. p. 34. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
Scoop: we've found out where the Socialist candidate got her ideas! From this intellectual sensitive to political alienation. Jacques Rancière.
- Felski, Rita (2015). The Limits of Critique. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 150.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jacques Rancière.|
- Jacques Rancière: Democracy, Equality, Emancipation in a Changing World at B-FEST (International Antiauthoritarian Festival of Babylonia Journal) 27/05/17, Athens
- Jacques Rancière Faculty Page at European Graduate School
- With and Around Jacques Rancière. Art and Research. Volume 2. No. 1. Summer 2008
- Thomas Campbell. Rancière's Lessons.
- Ben Davis. Jacques Rancière, The Politics of Aesthetics. artnet. Book Review. August 17, 2006.
- Audio Recordings of guest lectures given at U.C. Berkeley. February/March 2008
- Luka Arsenjuk. On Jacques Rancière. Eurozine, 1 March 2007
- (in Spanish) Adolfo Vásquez Rocca. Jacques Rancière; politics and aisthesis
- Eli Bornowsky. Notes on the Politics of Aesthetics. Fillip. Book Review. 2006
- Juha Suoranta (2010). Jacques Rancière on Radical Equality and Adult Education. The Encyclopaedia of Philosophy of Education
- (in French) "Jacques Rancière, l'indiscipliné". A special issue of the journal Labyrinthe, 2004 (in French)
- "Guantanamo, Justice, and Bushspeak: Prisoners of the Infinite", CounterPunch article (2002)
- Rancières view on Marx: The big bird promotes inequality. Katapult-Magazine. 11.05.2015
- Peter Graton. Critical review of Rancière's Aisthesis Book review. 2014.