Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسني السيد مبارك, romanized: Muḥammad Ḥusnī as-Sayyid Mubārak, Egyptian Arabic: [mæˈħæmmæd ˈħosni (ʔe)sˈsæjjed moˈbɑːɾɑk]; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
Mubarak in 2009
|4th President of Egypt|
14 October 1981 – 11 February 2011
|Vice President||Omar Suleiman[a]|
|Preceded by||Sufi Abu Taleb (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (Interim)|
|Prime Minister of Egypt|
7 October 1981 – 2 January 1982
|President||Sufi Abu Taleb (Acting)|
|Preceded by||Anwar Sadat|
|Succeeded by||Ahmad Fuad Mohieddin|
|15th Vice-President of Egypt|
16 April 1975 – 14 October 1981
|Preceded by||Hussein el-Shafei|
|Succeeded by||Omar Suleiman[a]|
|Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement|
16 July 2009 – 11 February 2011
|Preceded by||Raúl Castro|
|Succeeded by||Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (Acting)|
|Commander of the Air Force|
23 April 1972 – 16 April 1975
|Preceded by||Ali Mustafa Baghdady|
|Succeeded by||Mahmoud Shaker|
|Director of the Egyptian Air Academy|
November 1967 – June 1969
|Preceded by||Yahia Saleh Al-Aidaros|
|Succeeded by||Mahmoud Shaker|
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak
4 May 1928
Kafr-El Meselha, Kingdom of Egypt
|Political party||National Democratic Party (1978–2011)|
Suzanne Thabet (m. 1959)
|Alma mater||Egyptian Military Academy|
Egyptian Air Academy
Frunze Military Academy
|Years of service||1950–1975|
|Commands||Egyptian Air Force|
Egyptian Air Academy
Beni Suef Air Base
Cairo West Air Base
|a. ^ Office vacant from 14 October 1981 to 29 January 2011|
b. ^ as Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
c.^ c. military rank withdrawn after trial
Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959. He assumed presidency after the assassination of Anwar Sadat. Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country from 1805 to 1848, a reign of 43 years. Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.
On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons (Alaa and Gamal) to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power. Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution. These trials began on 3 August 2011. On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation (the nation's high court of appeal) overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial. On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences. Mubarak was detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court. He was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by the Court of Cassation and released on 24 March 2017.
Early life and Air Force career
Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt. On 2 February 1949, he left the Military Academy and joined the Air Force Academy, gaining his commission as a pilot officer on 13 March 1950 and eventually receiving a bachelor's degree in aviation sciences.
Mubarak served as an Egyptian Air Force officer in various formations and units; he spent two years in a Spitfire fighter squadron. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959. From February 1959 to June 1961, Mubarak undertook further training in the Soviet Union, attending a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant Air Base near Bishkek in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.
Mubarak undertook training on the Ilyushin Il-28 and Tupolev Tu-16 jet bombers. In 1964 he gained a place at the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow. On his return to Egypt, he served as a wing commander, then as a base commander; he commanded the Cairo West Air Base in October 1966 then briefly commanded the Beni Suef Air Base. In November 1967, Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's commander when he was credited with doubling the number of Air Force pilots and navigators during the pre-October War years. Two years later, he became Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force.
In 1972, Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense. On 6 October 1973, at the breakout of the Yom Kippur War, the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero. The next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel. Mubarak was credited in some publications for Egypt's initial strong performance in the war. The Egyptian analyst Mohamed Hassanein Heikal said the Air Force played a mostly psychological role in the war, providing an inspirational sight for the Egyptian ground troops who carried out the crossing of the Suez Canal, rather than for any military necessity. However Mubarak's influence was also disputed by Shahdan El-Shazli, the daughter of the former Egyptian military Chief of Staff Saad el-Shazly. She said Mubarak exaggerated his role in the 1973 war. In an interview with the Egyptian independent newspaper Almasry Alyoum (26 February 2011), El-Shazli said Mubarak altered documents to take credit from her father for the initial success of the Egyptian forces in 1973. She also said photographs pertaining to the discussions in the military command room were altered and Saad El-Shazli was erased and replaced with Mubarak. She stated she intends to take legal action.
Vice President of Egypt
In April 1975, President Anwar Sadat appointed Mubarak Vice President of Egypt. In this position, he took part in government consultations that dealt with the future disengagement of forces agreement with Israel. In September 1975, Mubarak went on a mission to Riyadh and Damascus to persuade the Saudi Arabian and Syrian governments to accept the disengagement agreement signed with the Israeli government ("Sinai II"), but was refused a meeting by the Syrian President Hafez Al-Assad. During his meetings with the Saudi government, Mubarak developed a friendship with the nation's powerful Crown Prince Fahd, whom Sadat had refused to meet or contact and who was now seen as major player who could help mend the failing relationship between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Mubarak also developed friendships with several other important Arab figureheads, including Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud, Oman's Sultan Qaboos, Morocco's King Hassan II, and Sudan's President Jaafar Nimeiry.
Sadat also sent Mubarak to numerous meetings with foreign leaders outside the Arab world. Mubarak's political significance as Vice-President can be seen from a conversation held on 23 June 1975 between Foreign Minister Fahmy and US Ambassador Hermann Eilts. Fahmy told Eilts that "Mubarak is, for the time being at least, likely to be a regular participant in all sensitive meetings" and he advised the Ambassador not to antagonize Mubarak because he was Sadat's personal choice. Though supportive of Sadat's earlier efforts made to bring the Sinai Peninsula back into Egyptian control, Mubarak agreed with the views of various Arab figureheads and opposed the Camp David Accords for failing to address other issues relating to the Arab–Israeli conflict. Sadat even transferred his decisionmaking authority to Mubarak temporarily at times he went on vacations.
President of Egypt
Mubarak was injured during the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981 by soldiers led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli. Following Sadat's death, Mubarak became the fourth president of Egypt.
Egypt's return to the Arab League
Until Libya's suspension from the Arab League at the beginning of the Libyan Civil War, Egypt was the only state in the history of the organization to have had its membership suspended, because of President Sadat's peace treaty with Israel. In June 1982, Mubarak met King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, which marked a beginning of an Egyptian-Saudi rapprochement. Since Egypt is the most populous Arab country and Saudi Arabia the richest, the Saudi–Egyptian axis was a powerful force in the Arab world. At an Arab League summit later in 1982 in Fez, Saudi Arabia put forward an Egyptian peace plan where in exchange for Israel resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict by allowing a Palestinian state, the entire Arab world would make peace with Israel.
The Islamic Republic of Iran had, from 1979 onward, been making the claim to be the leader of the Islamic world, and in particular Ayatollah Khomeini had called for the overthrow of the governments of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and other Arab states along the southern shores of the Persian Gulf, calling these states illegitimate. The claim of the Ayatollah Khomeini to be the rightful leader of the Islamic world and his attempts to export the Iranian revolution by working to overthrow governments that Khomeini deemed un-Islamic caused profound alarm and fear in the governments that were targeted like Iraq and Saudi Arabia. In the face of the Iranian challenge, the other Arab states looked towards Egypt as an ally. For King Fahd of Saudi Arabia and the other leaders of the Arab Gulf states, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict faded into the background and the main concern was resisting Iranian pretensions to be the leader of the Islamic world, meaning that Egypt could not be ignored.
During the Iran–Iraq War from 1980 to 1988, Egypt supported Iraq militarily and economically with one million Egyptians working in Iraq to take the place of Iraqi men serving on the front-line. In December 1983, Mubarak welcomed Yasser Arafat of the PLO to a summit in Cairo, marking a rapprochement with the PLO, and from that time, Egypt became the PLO's main ally. In 1985, the Achille Lauro hijacking caused a major crisis in relations when the U.S Air Force forced an EgyptAir plane carrying the Achille Lauro hi-jackers to Tunisia to land in Italy; otherwise the plane would have been shot down. Mubarak stated in a press conference on 12 October 1985: "I am very wounded. Now there is coolness and strain as a result of this incident." Egypt had been ostracized by the other Arab states for signing the Camp David Accords in 1979, but Egypt's weight within the Arab world had led to Egypt regaining its "central place in the Arab world" by 1989. In 1989, Egypt was re-admitted as a full member to the Arab League and the League's headquarters were moved to their original location in Cairo.
Throughout the 1980s, Mubarak increased the production of affordable housing, clothing, furniture, and medicine. By the time he became President, Mubarak was one of a few Egyptian officials who refused to visit Israel and vowed to take a less enthusiastic approach to normalizing relations with the Israeli government. Under Mubarak, Israeli journalists often wrote about the "cold peace" with Egypt, observing Israeli–Egyptian relations were frosty at best. Mubarak was quick to deny that his policies would result in difficulties for Egyptian–Israeli dealings in the future.
Despite or perhaps because of the Camp David Accords, Murbarak "fostered a culture of virulent anti-Semitism in Egypt" and turned Egypt into "the world's most prolific producer of anti-Semitic ideas and attitudes". Mubarak justified the Camp David accords in anti-Semitic terms in an interview, saying the Jews controlled the world economy. Mubarak stated:
"Against us stood the most intelligent people on the earth-a people that controls the international press, the world economy and the world finances. We succeeded in compelling the Jews to do what we wanted; we received all our land back, up to the last grain of sand! We have outwitted them, and what have we given them in return? A piece of paper!...We were shrewder than the shrewdest people on the earth! We managed to hamper their steps in every direction. We have established sophisticated machinery to control and limit to the minimum contacts with the Jews. We have proven that making peace with Israel does not entail Jewish domination and that there is no obligation to develop relations with Israel beyond those we desire".
During the Mubarak years, the Egyptian media portrayed the infamous anti-Semitic forgery The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion as genuine, accused the Jews of spreading venereal diseases in Egypt, of working to sabotage Egyptian agriculture, and of causing the problems of drug addiction among the Egyptian youth. The anti-Semitic pamphlet Human Sacrifice in the Talmud was made mandatory reading by the Egyptian Ministry of Education. The Israeli historian Major Efraim Karsh wrote in 2006 that in Egypt "...numberless articles, scholarly writings, books, cartoons, public statements, and radio and television programs, Jews are painted in the blackest terms imaginable". Karsh accused Mubarak of being personally antisemitic, writing he "evidently shared the premises" of his propaganda. Egypt's heavy dependence on US aid and its hopes for US pressure on Israel for a Palestinian settlement continued under Mubarak. He quietly improved relations with the former Soviet Union. In 1987, Mubarak won an election to a second six-year term.
In his early years in power, Mubarak expanded the Egyptian State Security Investigations Service (Mabahith Amn ad-Dawla) and the Central Security Forces (anti-riot and containment forces). According to Tarek Osman, the experience of seeing his predecessor assassinated "right in front of him" and his lengthy military career—which was longer than those of Nasser or Sadat—may have instilled in him more focus and absorption with security than seemed the case with the latter heads of state. Mubarak sought advice and confidence not in leading ministers, senior advisers or leading intellectuals, but from his security chiefs—"interior ministers, army commanders, and the heads of the ultra-influential intelligence services." All through the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, violations of human rights by the security services in Egypt were described as "systematic" by Amnesty International. In 2007, Amnesty International reported that the Egyptian police routinely engaged in "beatings, electric shocks, prolonged suspension by the wrists and ankles in contorted positions, death threats and sexual abuse". The state remained large under Mubarak employing 8 million people out of a population of 75 million.
Because of his positions against Islamic fundamentalism and his diplomacy towards Israel, Mubarak was the target of repeated assassination attempts. According to the BBC, Mubarak survived six attempts on his life. In June 1995, there was an alleged assassination attempt involving noxious gases and Egyptian Islamic Jihad while Mubarak was in Ethiopia for a conference of the Organization of African Unity. He was also reportedly injured by a knife-wielding assailant in Port Said in September 1999.
Neither Israel nor the United States ever made much of any issue of the antisemitism of the Egyptian media under Mubarak. A rare exception was in 2002 when the Egyptian state television aired the mini-series Horseman without a Horse which portrayed The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion as genuine. Both the Israeli and American ambassadors handed in notes of protest against the airing of Horseman without a Horse for inciting antisemitism.
Gulf War of 1991
Egypt was a member of the allied coalition during the 1991 Gulf War; Egyptian infantry were some of the first to land in Saudi Arabia to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Egypt's participation in the war solidified its central role in the Arab World and brought financial benefits for the Egyptian government. Reports that sums of up to US$500,000 per soldier were paid or debt forgiven were published in the news media. According to The Economist:
The programme worked like a charm: a textbook case, says the [International Monetary Fund]. In fact, luck was on Hosni Mubarak's side; when the US was hunting for a military alliance to force Iraq out of Kuwait, Egypt's president joined without hesitation. After the war, his reward was that America, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and Europe forgave Egypt around $20 billion of debt.
Stance on the invasion of Iraq in 2003
President Mubarak spoke out against the 2003 invasion of Iraq, arguing that the Israeli–Palestinian conflict should have been resolved first. He also said the war would cause "100 Bin Ladens". However, as President he did not support an immediate US withdrawal from Iraq because he believed it would probably lead to chaos.
President Mubarak was re-elected by majority votes in a referendum for successive terms on four occasions: in 1987, 1993, and 1999. Previously, Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated by Parliament then confirmed without opposition in a referendum.
The September 2005 ballot was a multiple-candidate election rather than a referendum, but the electoral institutions and security apparatus remain under the control of the President. On 28 July 2005, Mubarak announced his candidacy. The election was scheduled for 7 September 2005; according to civil organizations that observed the election it was marred by mass rigging activities. In a move widely seen as political persecution, Ayman Nour, a dissident and candidate for the El-Ghad Party ("Tomorrow party") was convicted of forgery and sentenced to five years' hard labor on 24 December 2005.
State corruption during Mubarak's presidency
While in office, political corruption in the Mubarak administration's Ministry of the Interior rose dramatically. Political figures and young activists were imprisoned without trial. Illegal, undocumented, hidden detention facilities were established, and universities, mosques, and newspaper staff were rejected because of political inclination.
In 2005 Freedom House, a non-governmental organization that conducts research into democracy, reported that the Egyptian government under Mubarak expanded bureaucratic regulations, registration requirements, and other controls that often feed corruption. Freedom House said, "corruption remained a significant problem under Mubarak, who promised to do much, but in fact never did anything significant to tackle it effectively".
In 2010, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts, with 10 being very clean and 0 being highly corrupt. Egypt ranked 98th out of the 178 countries included in the report.
Wealth and allegations of personal corruption
In February 2011, ABC News reported that experts believed the personal wealth of Mubarak and his family was between US$40 billion and US$70 billion from military contracts made during his time as an air force officer. The Guardian reported that Mubarak and his family might be worth up to US$70 billion garnered from corruption, bribes and legitimate business activities. The money was said to be spread out in various bank accounts, including some in Switzerland and the UK, and invested in foreign property. The newspaper said some of the information about the family's wealth might be ten years old. According to Newsweek, these allegations are poorly substantiated and lack credibility.
On 12 February 2011, the government of Switzerland announced it was freezing the Swiss bank accounts of Mubarak and his family. On 20 February 2011, the Egyptian Prosecutor General ordered the freezing of Mubarak's assets and those of his wife Suzanne, his sons Alaa and Gamal Mubarak, and his daughters-in-law Heidi Rasekh and Khadiga Gamal. The Prosecutor General also ordered the Egyptian Foreign Minister to communicate this to other countries where Mubarak and his family could have assets. This order came two days after Egyptian newspapers reported that Mubarak filed his financial statement. Egyptian regulations mandate government officials to submit a financial statement listing their assets and sources of income while performing government work. On 21 February 2011, the Egyptian Military Council, which was temporarily given the presidential authorities following 25 January 2011 Revolution, said it had no objection to a trial of Mubarak on charges of corruption.
On 23 February 2011, the Egyptian newspaper Eldostor reported that a "knowledgeable source" described the order of the Prosecutor General to freeze Mubarak's assets and the threats of a legal action as nothing but a signal for Mubarak to leave Egypt after a number of attempts were made to encourage him to leave willingly. In February 2011, Voice of America reported that Egypt's top prosecutor had ordered a travel ban and an asset freeze for Mubarak and his family as he considered further action. On 21 May 2014 a Cairo court convicted Mubarak and his sons of embezzling the equivalent of US$17.6 million of state funds which were allocated for renovation and maintenance of presidential palaces but were instead diverted to upgrade private family homes. The court ordered the repayment of US$17.6 million, fined the trio US$2.9 million, and sentenced Mubarak to three years in prison and each of his sons to four years.
In 2009, US Ambassador Margaret Scobey said, "despite incessant whispered discussions, no one in Egypt has any certainty about who will eventually succeed Mubarak nor under what circumstances." She said presidential son Gamal Mubarak was the most likely successor; some thought intelligence chief Omar Suleiman might seek the office, or Arab League Secretary-General Amr Moussa might stand. President Mubarak and his son denied this; they said "a multi-candidate electoral system introduced in 2005 has made the political process more transparent". Nigerian Tribune journalist Abiodun Awolaja described a possible succession by Gamal Mubarak as a "hereditary pseudo-monarchy."
The National Democratic Party of Egypt continued to state that Hosni Mubarak was to be the party's only candidate in the 2011 Presidential Election. Mubarak said on 1 February 2011 that he had no intention of standing in the 2011 presidential election. When this declaration failed to ease the protests, Mubarak's vice president stated that Gamal Mubarak would not run for president. With the escalation of the demonstration and the fall of Mubarak, Hamdy El-Sayed, a former influential figure in the National Democratic Party, said Gamal Mubarak intended to usurp the presidency, assisted by then Interior Minister, Habib El-Adly.
During his presidency, Mubarak upheld the U.S.-brokered Camp David Accords treaty signed between Egypt and Israel in 1978. Mubarak, on occasion also hosted meetings relating to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and made a number of attempts to serve as a broker between them. Mubarak was concerned that Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson didn't trust him on the issue and considered meeting him in New York.
In October 2000, Mubarak hosted an emergency summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheikh to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In attendance were: U.S. President Bill Clinton, P.L.O. Chairman Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, King Abdullah of Jordan, NATO Sec. General Javier Solana, and U.N. Sec. General Kofi Annan.
Mubarak was involved in the Arab League, supporting Arab efforts to achieve a lasting peace in the region. At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative, a Saudi-inspired plan to end the Arab–Israeli conflict.
In June 2007, Mubarak held a summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheik with King Abdullah II of Jordan, President Mahmoud Abbas and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. On 19 June 2008, the Egypt-brokered pause in hostilities between Israel and Hamas went into effect. According to The New York Times, neither side fully respected the terms of the ceasefire.
The agreement required Hamas to end rocket attacks on Israel and to enforce the ceasefire throughout Gaza. In exchange, Hamas expected the blockade to end, commerce in Gaza to resume, and truck shipments to be restored to 2005 levels. Israel tied an easing of the blockade to a reduction in rocket fire and gradually re-opened supply lines and permitted around 90 daily truck shipments to enter Gaza. Hamas criticized Israel for its continued blockade while Israel accused Hamas of continued weapons smuggling via tunnels to Egypt and pointed to continued rocket attacks.
In 2009, Mubarak's government banned the Cairo Anti-war Conference, which had criticised his lack of action against Israel.
Revolution and overthrow
Protests against Mubarak and his regime erupted in Cairo and other Egyptian cities in January 2011. On 1 February, Mubarak announced he would not contest the presidential election due in September. He also promised constitutional reform. This did not satisfy most protesters, who expected Mubarak to depart immediately. The demonstrations continued and on 2 February, violent clashes occurred between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak protesters.
On 10 February, contrary to rumours, Mubarak said he would not resign until the September election, though he would be delegating responsibilities to Vice President Omar Suleiman. The next day, Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned. The announcement sparked cheers, flag-waving, and celebrations from protesters in Egypt. Discussions about the nation's future direction began. It had been suggested that Egypt be put in the hands of a caretaker government.
On 25 January 2011, protests against Mubarak and his government erupted in Cairo and around Egypt calling for Mubarak's resignation. Mubarak stated in a speech that he would not leave, and would die on Egyptian soil. Opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei paid no attention to Mubarak's remarks and labeled it as a trick designed to help Mubarak to stay in power. In a state televised broadcast on 1 February 2011, Mubarak announced that he would not seek re-election in September but would like to finish his current term and promised constitutional reform. This compromise was not acceptable for the protestors and violent demonstrations occurred in front of the Presidential Palace. On 11 February, then Vice President Omar Suleiman announced Mubarak had resigned and that power would be turned over to the Egyptian military.
Two and a half hours after Mubarak's resignation, an Egyptian military member came on air and thanked Mubarak for "putting the interests of the country first." The statement, which said "The Supreme Council is currently studying the situation," did not state what the council would do next.
Mubarak made no media appearances after his resignation. Except for his family and a close circle of aides, he reportedly refused to talk to anyone—even his supporters. His health was speculated to be rapidly deteriorating; some reports said he was in a coma. Most sources said he was no longer interested in performing any duties and wanted to "die in Sharm El-Sheikh".
On 28 February 2011, the General Prosecutor of Egypt issued an order prohibiting Mubarak and his family from leaving Egypt. It was reported that Mubarak was in contact with his lawyer in case of possible criminal charges against him. As a result, Mubarak and his family were placed under house arrest at a presidential palace in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh. On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor originally appointed by Mubarak ordered the former president and both his sons to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power amid growing suspicion that the Egyptian military was more aligned with the Mubaraks than with the revolution. Gamal and Alaa were jailed in Tora Prison; state television reported that Mubarak was in police custody in a hospital near his residence following a heart attack. Former Israeli Cabinet minister Benjamin Ben Eliezer told Israeli Radio that he had offered Mubarak refuge in the southern Israeli city of Eilat.
On 11 May 2013, he told El-Watan in his first media appearance since his resignation said, "History will judge and I am still certain that the coming generations will view me fairly." He added that President Mohammed Morsi faced a tough time and that it was too early to judge him.
On 24 May 2011, Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protesters during the revolution and, if convicted, could face the death penalty. The decision to try Mubarak was made days before a scheduled protest in Tahrir Square. The full list of charges released by the public prosecutor was "intentional murder, attempted killing of some demonstrators ... misuse of influence, deliberately wasting public funds and unlawfully making private financial gains and profits".
On 28 May, a Cairo administrative court found Mubarak guilty of damaging the national economy during the protests by shutting down the Internet and telephone services. He was fined LE200 million—about US$33.6 million—which the court ordered he must pay from his personal assets. This was the first court ruling against Mubarak, who would next have to answer to the murder charges.
The trial of Hosni Mubarak, his sons Ala'a and Gamal, former interior minister Habib el-Adly and six former top police officials began on 3 August 2011 at a temporary criminal court at the Police Academy in north Cairo. They were charged with corruption and the premeditated killing of peaceful protesters during the mass movement to oust the Mubarak government, the latter of which carries the death penalty. The trial was broadcast on Egyptian television; Mubarak made an unexpected appearance—his first since his resignation. He was taken into the court on a hospital bed and held in a cage for the session. Upon hearing the charges against him, Mubarak pleaded not guilty. Judge Ahmed Refaat adjourned the court, ruling that Mubarak be transferred under continued arrest to the military hospital on the outskirts of Cairo. The second court session scheduled for 15 August. On 15 August, the resumed trial lasted three hours. At the end of the session, Rifaat announced that the third session would take place on 5 September and that the remainder of the proceedings would be off-limits to television cameras.
The trial resumed in December 2011 and lasted until January 2012. The defense strategy was that Mubarak never actually resigned, was still president, and thus had immunity. On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was found guilty of not halting the killing of protesters by the Egyptian security forces; he was sentenced to life imprisonment. The court found Mubarak not guilty of ordering the crackdown on Egyptian protesters. All other charges against Mubarak, including profiteering and economic fraud, were dismissed. Mubarak's sons, Habib el-Adly, and six senior police officials were all acquitted for their roles in the killing of demonstrators because of a lack of evidence. According to The Guardian, the relatives of those killed by Mubarak's forces were angered by the verdict. Thousands of demonstrators protested the verdict in Tahrir Square, Arbein Square and Al-Qaed Ibrahim Square.
In January 2013, an appeals court overturned Mubarak's life sentence and ordered a retrial. He remained in custody and returned to court on 11 May 2013 for a retrial on charges of complicity in the murder of protesters. On 21 August 2013, a Cairo court ordered his release. Judicial sources confirmed that the court had upheld a petition from Mubarak's longtime lawyer that called for his release. A day later, interim prime minister Hazem El Beblawi ordered that Mubarak be put under house arrest.
On 21 May 2014, while awaiting retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on charges of embezzlement; Mubarak was sentenced to three years in prison, while his sons received four-year sentences. The three were fined the equivalent of US$2.9 million, and were ordered to repay US$17.6 million.
In November 2014, conspiracy to kill charges were dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court on a technicality. The court also cleared Mubarak of corruption charges. On 13 January 2015, Egypt's Court of Cassation overturned Mubarak's and his sons' embezzlement charges, the last remaining conviction against him, and ordered a retrial. A retrial on the corruption charges led to a conviction and sentencing to three years in prison in May 2015 for Mubarak, with four-year terms for his sons, Gamal and Alaa. It was not immediately clear whether the sentence would take into account time already served – Mubarak and his sons have already spent more than three years in prison, so potentially will not have to serve any additional time. Supporters of Mubarak jeered the decision when it was announced in a Cairo courtroom on 9 May. The sentence also included a 125 million Egyptian pound (US$16.3 million) fine, and required the return of 21 million embezzled Egyptian pounds (US$2.7 million). These amounts were previously paid after the first trial.
Support for Sisi
Though mostly out of the public eye, Mubarak granted a rare interview in February 2014 with Kuwaiti journalist Fajer al-Saeed, expressing support for then-Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as the next President of Egypt, recognizing that Sisi was working to restore the confidence of the Egyptian people. "The people want Sisi, and the people's will shall prevail," Mubarak noted. Mubarak also expressed great admiration and gratitude towards the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan of the United Arab Emirates and his children, for their continuous support of Egypt and its people. However, Mubarak expressed his dislike of opposition politician Hamdeen Sabbahi, a Nasserist following the policies of Gamal Abdel Nasser.
In July 2010, the media said Egypt was about to undergo dramatic change because Mubarak was thought to have cancer and because of the scheduled 2011 presidential election. Intelligence sources said he had esophageal cancer, stomach or pancreatic cancer; this was denied by Egyptian authorities. Speculation about his ill health increased after his resignation from the presidency. According to Egyptian media, Mubarak's condition worsened after he went into exile in Sharm el-Sheikh. He was reportedly depressed, refused to take medications, and was slipping in and out of consciousness. According to the source—an unnamed Egyptian security official—"Mubarak wants to be left alone and die in his homeland". The source denied that Mubarak was writing his memoirs, stating that he was almost completely unconscious. After his resignation, Egypt's ambassador to the United States Sameh Shoukry reported that his personal sources said Mubarak "is possibly in somewhat of bad health", while several Egyptian and Saudi Arabian newspapers reported that Mubarak was in a coma and close to death. On 12 April 2011, it was reported that he had been hospitalized after suffering a heart attack during questioning over possible corruption charges.
In June 2011, Mubarak's lawyer Farid el-Deeb said his client "has stomach cancer, and the cancer is growing". Mubarak had undergone surgery for the condition in Germany in 2010 and also suffered from circulatory problems with an irregular heart beat. On 13 July 2011, unconfirmed reports stated that Mubarak had slipped into a coma at his residence after giving his final speech, and on 17 July, el-Deeb confirmed the reports. On 26 July 2011, Mubarak was reported to be depressed and refusing solid food while in hospital being treated for a heart condition and in custody awaiting trial.
On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was reported as have suffered a health crisis while being transported to prison after his conviction on the charges of complicity in the killing of protestors. Some sources reported he had had a heart attack. Further reports stated that Mubarak's health continued to decline; some said he had to be treated with a defibrillator. On 20 June 2012, as Mubarak's condition continued to decline, state-run media erroneously reported that the former president had been declared "clinically dead", causing widespread confusion. Officials later clarified that Mubarak was is a critical condition.
On 27 December 2012, Mubarak was taken from Tora Prison to the Cairo military hospital after falling and breaking a rib. He was released from prison in August 2013.
In a new development, on 19 June 2014, Mubarak slipped in the bathroom at the military hospital in Cairo where he is being held and broke his left leg, also fracturing his left thighbone, requiring surgery. Mubarak is serving a three-year sentence for corruption and is also awaiting retrial regarding the killing of protesters during his regime. At one time, his release was ordered. However, Mubarak had remained at the military hospital since January 2014 due to his ongoing health issues.
On 2 March 2017, the Court of Cassation, Egypt's top appeals court, acquitted Mubarak of conspiring in the killing of protesters during the 2011 uprising. He was subsequently released on 24 March 2017.
Hosni Mubarak is married to Suzanne Mubarak and has two sons: Alaa and Gamal. Both sons served four years in Egyptian jail for corruption and were released in 2015. Through his son Alaa, Mubarak has two grandsons, Muhammed and Omar; and through his son Gamal, he has a granddaughter Farida. Muhammad died in 2009 from a cerebral hemorrhage.
Political and military posts
- Jawaharlal Nehru Award (1995)
- First Class of the Order of the State of Republic of Turkey (1998)
- Honor Star Medal, twice
- Military Training medal
- Military Honor Medal Knight Rank from the President of Syria
- Honor Star Medal from the PLO
- Order of King Abdulaziz – Excellent Degree from King Faisal
- Hamayon Merit from Emperor Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, Iran
- Darraj, Susan Muaddi; Cox, Vicki (2007). Hosni Mubarak. ISBN 9781438104676.
- "Air Marshal Mohammed Hosni Mubarak". Egyptian Armed Forces Web Site. Egyptian Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- Slackman, Michael (8 March 2010). "Hosni Mubarak". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (28 January 2011). "Egypt Calls in Army as Protesters Rage". New York Times. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- Kirkpatrick, David D.; Shadid, Anthony; Cowell, Alan (11 February 2011). "Mubarak Steps Down, Ceding Power to Military". New York Times. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- "Egypt crisis: President Hosni Mubarak resigns as leader". BBC. 11 February 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Kirkpatrick, David D.; Stack, Liam (13 March 2011). "Prosecutors Order Mubarak and Sons Held". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Mubarak to be tried for murder of protesters". Reuters. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "Trial of Egypt's Hosni Mubarak starts". BBC. 3 August 2011.
- Egypt's Mubarak to get retrial. 3 News. Retrieved on 2014-01-16.
- "Egypt's Hosni Mubarak jailed in corruption retrial". BBC News. 9 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "Jailed sons of Egypt's deposed leader Hosni Mubarak freed". Associated Press. 13 October 2015.
- "Egypt's Hosni Mubarak acquitted over 2011 protester deaths". 3 March 2017.
- "Egypt's Hosni Mubarak freed after six years in detention". BBC News. 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Profile: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak". Xinhua News. 10 February 2010. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- "Staff Group Captain Mohammed Hosni Mubarak". Egyptian Armed Forces Web Site. Egyptian Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- CNN Library, Hosni Mubarak Fast Facts. 31 May 2014
- de Borchgrave, Arnaud (2 February 2011). "The Mubarak legend – Longtime strongman can't withstand media barrage". The Washington Times. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- "Middle East factfile: Key figures". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 15 January 2002. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
- "كتابات مصراوي – هيكل يفجر قنبلة مدوية حول لغز بقاء مبارك بشرم الشيخ". Masrawy. 21 February 2011. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Khalid, Osama (26 February 2011). ابنة الفريق سعدالدين الشاذلى لـ"المصري اليوم": "مبارك" زوّر التاريخ ووضع صورته مكان والدى فى "غرفة عمليات أكتوبر". Almasry Alyoum (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Eilts to Kissinger, July 22, 1975". Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Eilts to Kissinger, September 3, 1975". Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Hermann Eilts (US Ambassador to Egypt) to Henry Kissinger, September 5, 1975". Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Olfat M. El Tohamy (14 October 1981). "Egypt's Hosni Mubarak picks up Sadat's reins: profile". Christian Science Monitor. p. 2. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Hermann Eilts to Henry Kissinger, December 31, 1975". Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Hermann Eilts (US Ambassador to Egypt) to Cyrus Vance, 12 October 1978
- Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 175.
- Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 174.
- Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 176.
- Bernard Gwertzman (13 October 1985). "Hijacking Causes Chilling of U.S.-Egypt Relationship". New York Times.
- Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 177.
- "Middle East – Country profiles – Country profile: Egypt". BBC News. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
- Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 183.
- Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 184.
- Egypt on the Brink by Tarek Osman, Yale University Press, 2010, p. 170
- Egypt on the Brink by Tarek Osman, Yale University Press, 2010, pp. 170–1
- "No paradise". The Economist. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- BBC News, Profile: Hosni Mubarak. 22 August 2013.
- Wright, Lawrence (2007). The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 242–244. ISBN 978-1-4000-3084-2.
- Daniszewski, John (7 September 1999). "Man Killed After Injuring Mubarak". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Egypt criticised for 'anti-Semitic' film", BBC News Online, 1 November 2002.
- "The IMF's model pupil". The Economist. 18 March 1999. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
- "Mubarak warns of '100 bin Ladens'". CNN. 31 March 2003. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Mubarak: "U.S withdrawal would hurt Iraq"". USA Today. 9 April 2006. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Mubarak opponents take to streets, allege rigging". LivePunjab. 12 September 2005. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Slackman, Michael (25 December 2005). "Testing Egypt, Mubarak Rival Is Sent to Jail". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- Suzanne Choney (27 January 2011). "Egyptian bloggers brave police intimidation". NBC News. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- Jane Mayer (30 October 2006). "The C.I.A.'s Travel Agent". The New Yorker. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- Kalla Fakta (18 May 2004). "Striptease brevpapperl Agent". trojkan.se. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- Jack Shenker (22 November 2010). "Egyptian elections: independents fight for hearts and minds in 'fixed ballot'". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "Country Report – Egypt". freedomhouse.org. 2005. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "CPI 2010 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Kim, Susanna (2 February 2011). "Egypt's Mubarak likely to retain vast wealth". ABC News. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- Mubarak family fortune could reach $70bn, say experts, Guardian
- Dickey, Christopher (21 February 2011). "The Tragedy of Mubarak". Newsweek. p. 18.
- "Switzerland freezes assets of Mubarak". Deccan Herald.
- "ط§ظ"ط£ظˆظ"ظ‰ – ط§ظ"ظ†ط§ط¦ط¨ ط§ظ"ط¹ط§ظ… ظٹط·ظ"ط¨ طھط¬ظ…ظٹط¯ ط£ط±طµط¯ط ظ…ط¨ط§ط±ظƒ ظˆط¹ط§ط¦ظ"طھظ‡". Ahram. Archived from the original on 7 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "تجميد أرصدة مبارك إجراء لإجباره على الخروج من مصر بعد رفضه مطالبات مسبقة, الدستور". Dostor. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 19 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Egypt Issues Travel Ban, Asset Freeze on Mubarak". VOA. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Egypt's Mubarak gets three years in a graft case". Middle East Star. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Scobey, Margaret (19 May 2009). "Scenesetter: President Mubarak's visit to Washington". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 09CAIRO874. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- Shahine, Alaa (25 November 2010). "Egypt's Ruling Party Tightens Grip as Mubarak Succession Nears". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Awolaja, Abiodun (24 March 2010). "Between Nigeria and Egypt's presidential crises". Nigerian Tribune. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "حمدى السيد: جمال مبارك كان يدبر لانقلاب على أبيه بدعم العادلى – بوابة الشروق". Shorouk News. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Jeremy M. Sharp, Egypt: Background and U. S. Relations. CRS, 2009. p.43.
- Joseph Telushkin, Rebbe: The Life and Teachings of Menachem M. Schneerson, the Most Influential Rabbi in Modern History. HarperCollins, 2014. p. 209.
- Council of Arab States (1 October 2005). "The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002". Al-bab. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- "World divided over Mideast conflict", Aljazeera, 15 July 2006 Archived 24 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- Isabel Kershner (25 June 2008). "Rockets hit Israel, breaking Hamas truce". International Herald Tribune.
- Hamas offering Israel truce, not peace. USA Today. 12 March 2008.
- Bronner, Ethan (19 December 2008). "Gaza Truce May Be Revived by Necessity". New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- Press Conference on Gaza humanitarian situation UN. 2009.
- Truce barely eases Gaza embargo. Aleem Maqbool. BBC News. 19 August 2008.
- Rory McCarthy. (5 November 2008). The Guardian.
- "Mubarak blocks resistance Cairo conference". Socialist Worker. 12 May 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- Kevin Connolly (16 May 2009). "Egypt unrest: Hosni Mubarak vows to quit after polls". BBC. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Factbox—World reaction to Egypt's Mubarak quitting in September". Reuters. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- Wyre Davies (3 February 2011). "Egypt unrest: PM apologises for Tahrir Square violence". BBC News. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- Paul Adams (10 February 2011). "Egypt protests: Hosni Mubarak to make TV address". BBC. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- 'Egyptians celebrate a moment in history. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- BBC on Mubarak. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- 'President Obama hails Mubarak's Resignation, Cites 'Moral Force of Non-Violence: Uncensored News Archived 27 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- "Workers at Mubarak's palace plan 'Friday of Apology' Mubarak given up, wants to die in Sharm" 15 February 2011, Al Arabiya News
- "Ex-Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak near death" 15 February 2011, New York Daily News
- "General Prosecution: Mubarak and his family are not out of Egypt" 4 March 2011, Egyptian State Information Service
- "Egypt army reconsiders cases of jailed protesters". Yahoo. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Ailing Mubarak wheeled into courtroom cage for trial". CNN. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Egypt paper publishes 'Mubarak interview'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- Hennessy-Fiske, Molly; Hassan, Amro (29 May 2011). "Mubarak, other former Egypt officials fined $91 million for blocking cellphones, Internet". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- "Mubarak fined for mobile, Internet cut". The Egyptian Gazette. 28 May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Mubarak and sons to stand trial in August Al Jazeera. Retrieved 1 June 2011
- Afify, Heba; Fahim, Kareem (31 July 2011). "Judge Says TV Will Show Mubarak on Trial". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
- Hill, Evan (15 August 2011). "Mubarak trial reined in at second hearing". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
Lawyers were forced to take their seats and submit their requests in writing, and Rifaat adjourned the case until 5 September, after issuing a terse series of 10 decisions on how the trial would proceed.
- "Egypt's Hosni Mubarak Trial: Defense Concludes, Argues Ousted Leader Still President". Huffington Post. Associated Press. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
- "Mubarak jailed for protest deaths". BBC. 2 June 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Kirkpatrick, Patrick D. (2 June 2012). "New Turmoil in Egypt Greets Mixed Verdict for Mubarak". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Hosni Mubarak's sentence greeted with initial euphoria, then anger". The Guardian. 2 June 2012.
- "Live updates: Thousands take to Egypt street protesting 'political' ruling in Mubarak case". Ahram online. 2 June 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Egypt's Mubarak to get retrial". 3 News NZ. 14 January 2013.
- "Ousted Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak's retrial starts". BBC. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
- "Egyptian Court Orders Mubarak's Release"' ABC News
- "Egypt to place Mubarak under house arrest". Times of Israel. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- "Hosni Mubarak: Egypt court drops murder charges over 2011 killings". BBC News. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- "Egypt: Ex-ruler Hosni Mubarak, accused in deaths of hundreds, cleared of charges". CNN. CNN. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- Egypt's high court overturns last conviction against Mubarak. Reuters. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Hosni Mubarak and Sons Sentenced to 3 Years in Prison, Likely to Go Free". NBC News. Reuters. 9 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Rohan, Brian (9 May 2015). "Egyptian court sentences former president Hosni Mubarak and sons to three years in prison for corruption". National Post. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- Malsin, Jared (9 May 2015). "Egypt: Hosni Mubarak sentenced to three years in prison". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- In rare interview, Mubarak says Egyptians want Sisi
- "Mubarak supports Sisi, slams Sabbahi in phone interview". Cairo Post. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- "Report: Mubarak has fallen ill". The Jerusalem Post. 7 July 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- Evan Hill (21 November 2010). "The Muslim Brotherhood in flux – In Depth". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "Report: Egypt's Mubarak dying of cancer". UPI. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Norman, Joshua (13 February 2011). "Mubarak Mystery: In Egypt, in Germany, in Coma?". CBS. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Mubarak ailing, wants to die in Egypt". Ynetnews. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Ex-Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak near death: reports; protests flare up in Bahrain, Yemen". Daily News. New York. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Former Egyptian President Mubarak hospitalized". CNN. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Hosni Mubarak Has Cancer". The Telegraph. London. 21 June 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Mubarak falls into coma after final speech: report". Al Arabiya. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2001.
- News Desk (26 July 2011). "Egypt's ousted president Hosni Mubarak is reportedly depressed and refusing solid food". Global Post. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Hosni Mubarak 'has a heart attack' while taken to prison". Daily Telegraph. 2 June 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Mubarak has heart attack on way to jail". AP via News24. 2 June 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Doctors twice use defibrillator on Egypt's Mubarak". CTV Montreal. 11 June 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- "Hosni Mubarak 'defibrillated after heart stops'". Daily Telegraphl. 11 June 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- "Conflicting reports about whether Mubarak has died". CNN. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- Hosni Mubarak asks to vote in Egypt's constitutional referendum. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "Hosni Mubarak breaks leg in jail". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- "Hosni Mubarak's grandson, 12, dies suddenly". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- Dickey, Christopher (13 February 2011). "The Tragedy of Hosni Mubarak". Newsweek. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- Lily Kuo (4 April 2016). "Africa loses more money to illicit financial flows than it receives in foreign aid". Quartz. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016.
- "Indian Council for Cultural Relations, Universe of Culture, Promoting Indian Culture, Showcasing World Cultures". Iccrindia. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "Dostluk İlişkilerine Katkının Altın Sembolü: Devlet ve Cumhuriyet Nişanları (Turkish) – The Gold Symbol Contribution of Friendly Relations : State and Republic Orders". Haberler.com. February 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Egyptian Air Force – Air Marshal Mohammed Hosni Mubarak". Archived from the original on 23 December 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hosni Mubarak.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hosni Mubarak|
- President Mubarak at the Wayback Machine (archived 7 January 2007) at the official Egyptian government site
- Air Marshal Hosni Mubarak at the official Egyptian Air Force site
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Hosni Mubarak on Charlie Rose
- Hosni Mubarak on IMDb
- Hosni Mubarak collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English
- "Hosni Mubarak collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
- "Hosni Mubarak collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Works by or about Hosni Mubarak in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Hosni Mubarak: The Last Pharaoh, slideshow by Life magazine
- European Parliament Resolution on Egypt's Human Rights Situation, 16 January 2008
Yahia Saleh Al-Aidaros
| Director of the Egyptian Air Academy
Ali Mustafa Baghdady
| Commander of the Egyptian Air Force|
Title last held byHussein el-Shafei
| Vice-President of Egypt
Title next held byOmar Suleiman
Anwar El Sadat
| Prime Minister of Egypt
Ahmad Fuad Mohieddin
Sufi Abu Taleb
| President of Egypt
|Party political offices|
Anwar El Sadat
| Chairman of the National Democratic Party
| Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity
| Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
| Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi