The Gwalior Gharana (Gwalior school of classical music) is the oldest Khyal Gharana in Indian classical music. The rise of the Gwalior Gharana started with the reign of the great Mughal emperor Akbar (1542–1605). The favourite singers of this patron of the arts, such as Miyan Tansen, who was the most famous vocalist at the court, came from the town of Gwalior.
The Gwalior Gharana evolved during the time of the Mughal Empire (1526CE – 1857 CE). Among the early masters (ustad) were Naththan Khan, Naththan Pir Bakhsh and his grandsons Haddu, Hassu and Natthu Khan. The head musician in the imperial court was Bade Mohammad Khan, who was famous for his taan bazi style. Both Bade Mohammad Khan and Naththan Pir Bakhsh belonged to the same tradition of Shahi Sadarang (also known as Nemat Khan, dhrupad singer and veena player in the court of Mohammad Shah (1702 CE – 1748 CE).
Hassu Khan (died 1859 CE) and Haddu Khan (died 1875 CE) continued to develop the Gwalior style of singing. Haddu Khan's son Ustad Bade Inayat Hussain Khan (1852 – 1922) was also a singer but his style departed from the methodical Gwalior style.
Among the brothers' students were Vasudeva Buwa Joshi (died 1890), who became a teacher; and Ramkrishna Deva, who became a musician in Dhar. It was Ramkrishna Deva's student, Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar (1849 – 1926) who brought the Gwaliori gaeki (singing style) to Maharashtra state.
Another of the brothers' students was a Muslim dhrupad and dhamar singer from Amritsar, Banne Khan (1835 – 1910). He teaches for a time in Punjab and Sindh and then takes a musical position at the court of Nizam of Hyderabad. Banne Khan's pupils included his cousin, Amir Khan (also known as "Meeran Bukhsh Khan"), Gamman Khan, Bhai Atta, Ali Bukhsh (also known as "Kale Khan"), Mian Qadir (sarangi), and Bhai Wadhava (also known as Bhai Wasawa).
On 19 August 1922, Amir Khan performed at the second annual celebration of the independence of India. He became a mentor to a singer from Afghanistan, also performing at the celebration. This was the singer, Qasim Afghan ("Qasimju") (born 1878, Kabul). Amir Khan was appointed as a musician at the court of Maharajadhiraj Maharawal (Sir Jawahir Singh) of Jaisalmer (1914 – 1949). Amir Khan was also a teacher of Seth Vishandas of Hyderabad in Sindh near Karachi and Mahant Girdharidas of Bhuman Shah, Punjab.
Amir Khan became a teacher and trained his four sons. One of the sons, Pyare Khan, became a professional musician. Another son, Baba Sindhe Khan (1885 – 18 June 1950) became a music teacher and trained pupils such as the educator B. R. Deodhar (1901 – 1990); the singer Bade Ghulam Ali Khan (1902 – 1968), and Farida Khanam (born 1935).
Pyare Khan's sons were Umeed Ali Khan (1910 – 1979) and Ghulam Rasool Khan. They became respected classical vocalists of their time. Ghulam Rasool Khan had two sons, Hameed Ali Khan and Fateh Ali Khan.
Krishnarao Shankar Pandit (1893 – 1989) was a musician of the Gwalior gharana heritage. His father, Shankarrao Pandit was a student of Haddu Khan, Nathu Khan and Nissar Hussain Khan, Nathu Khan's son. Krishnarao Shankar Pandit practiced Khayal, Tappa and Tarana singing as well as layakari.
In 1914, Krishnarao Shankar Pandit opened a school in Gwalior, the Shankar Gandharva Mahavidyalaya. In 1921, he was awarded the title Gayak Shiromani at the All India Congress. Pandit became the court musician to Madhavrao Scindia of Gwalior; the State Musician of Maharashtra, an emeritus professor at Madhav Music College, Gwalior and an emeritus producer at All India Radio and Doordarshan. For his contribution to the world of classical music, he received awards including the Padma Bhushan in 1973 and the Tansen Award in 1980.
The students of Krishnarao Shankar Pandit included his son, Laxman Krishnarao Pandit, Sharadchandra Arolkar, Balasaheb Poochwale, and his granddaughter Meeta Pandit.
The following map is based on accounts that Makkan Khan and Shakkar Khan were not related. These accounts are supported by research indicating that Makkan Khan's descendants were dhrupadiyas and Shakkar Khan's descendants were khayaliyas, thus reflecting different genealogies.
|Nathan Peer Baksh|
|Natthe Khan||Haddu Khan|
|Ali Baksh &|
Fateh Ali Khan
A distinguishing feature of the gharana is its simplicity: well known ragas (melodic modes) rather than obscure ones are selected and sapaat (straight) taans (fast melodic sequences) is emphasized. While there is some limited raga vistar (melodic expansion) and alankar (melodic ornamentation) to enhance the beauty and meaning of the raga, there is no slow-tempo alap as in Kirana and there is no attempt to include tirobhava or melodic phrases to obscure the identity of the raga or add complexity. When the gharana is performed, the bandish (composition) is key as it provides the melody of the raga and indications on its performance. While doing bol-baant (rhythmic play using the words of the bandish) the Gwalior style uses all the words of sthayi or antara in proper sequence, without disturbing their meaning.
The behlava is a medium tempo rendition of the notes which follows the pattern of the aroha (ascent) and the avaroha (descent) of the raga. The behlava is divided into the asthayi (notes from "Ma" to "Sa") and the antara (noted from "Ma", "Pa", or "Dha" to "Pa" of the higher register). The asthayi section is sung twice before the antara. Then follows a swar-vistar in a medium tempo using heavy meends (glides) and taans. The dugun-ka-alap follows in which groups of two or four note combinations are sung in quicker succession while the basic tempo remains the same. The bol-alap is the next part where the words of the text are sung in different ways. Then there is in faster tempo the murki where notes are sung with ornamentation. The bol-taans have melodic sequences set to the words of the bandish. The other taans, including the gamak, follow.
The sapat taan is important to the Gwalior style. It is the singing of notes in a straight sequence and at a vilambit pace. Both Dhrupad and Khyal singing evolved in Gwalior and there are many overlaps. In the khyal style there is one form, Mundi Dhrupad, that incorporates all the features of dhrupad singing but without the Mukhda.
19th Century and Earlier
- Gulam Rasool
- Makkan Khan
- Nathan Peer Baksh
- Kadar Baksh
- Natthe Khan
- Haddu Khan (d. 1875)
- Hassu Khan (d. 1859)
- Chote Mohammed Khan (d. 1874) - Son and disciple of Haddu Khan.
- Vasudevbuwa Joshi
- Ramkrishna Deva "Devjibuwa"
- Vishnupant Chattra
- Banno Khan
- Ghagge Nazir Khan
- Banno Khan (1835 – 1910)
- Bade Nissar Hussain Khan (1844 – 1916) - Son and disciple of Natthe Khan.
- Rehmat Khan "Bhu Gandharva" (d. 1922) - Son and disciple of Haddu Khan.
- Ustad Bade Inayat Hussain Khan (1840 – 1923) "Ras Rang" Son of Ustad Haddu Khan Saheb
- Meeran Baksh "Amir" Khan
- Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar (1849 – 1926)
- Bhaiyya Ganpatrao (1852 – 1920) - disciple of Bande Ali Khan and Inayat Hussain Khan.
- Shankar Vishnu Pandit (1863 – 1917) - disciple of Bade Nissar Hussain Khan.
- Eknath Vishnu Pandit (1870 – c. 1936) - disciple of Bade Nissar Hussain Khan.
- Bala Saheb Guruji (d. 1919) - disciple of Haddu Khan.
- Ramkrishnabuwa Vaze (1871 – 1945) - disciple of Bade Nissar Hussain Khan and Shankar Vishnu Pandit.
- Nanubhaiya Telang (1879 – 1948) - a disciple of Bala Saheb Guruji, the disciple of Haddu Khan
- Anant Manohar Joshi (1881 – 1967) - disciple of Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar. Received Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1955).
- Raja Bhaiya Poonchwale (1882 – 1956) - disciple of Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar.
- Krishnarao Shankar Pandit (1894 – 1989)
- Omkarnath Thakur (1897 – 1967) - Disciple of V. D. Paluskar.
- Vinayakrao Patwardhan (1898 – 1975) - Disciple of V. D. Paluskar and Ramkrishnabuwa Vaze. Awarded Padma Bhushan (1972).
- B. R. Deodhar (1901 – 1990) - Disciple of Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar, V. D. Paluskar, Abdul Karim Khan, and Vinayakrao Patwardhan. Received Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1964), awarded Padma Shri (1976).
- Manzoor Ali Khan (1922-1980)
- Umeed Ali Khan (1910-1979)
- Asad Ali Khan - grandson of Ashiq Ali Khan and disciple of Fateh Ali Khan
- Balwantrai Bhatt (1921 – 2016) - student of Omkarnath Thakur
- Dattatreya Vishnu Paluskar
- Ustad Bade Inayat Hussain Khan
- Iqbal Hussain Khan Bandanawazi
- Qurban Hussain Khan
- Gajananbuwa Joshi
- Narayanrao Vyas (1902 – 1984) - Disciple of V. D. Paluskar. Received Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1976).
- Sharadchandra Arolkar (1912 – 1994) - Disciple of Krishnarao Shankar Pandit, Eknath Pandit, and Krishnarao Mulye. Received Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1979).
- Bhau Saheb Guruji - disciple of Nanu Bhaiya Telang.
- Krishna Narayan Telang - disciple and son of Pt. Nanu Bhaiya Telang. Recipient of Sangeet Natak Akademi award.
- Gangadhar Telang - disciple and son of Pt Nanu Bhaiya Telang. He also learnt from his elder brother Pt. Krish Narayan Telang. Recipient of Sangeet Natak Akademi Award.
- Vinayak Torvi - disciple of Pandit Gururao Deshpande, influenced by the Kirana, Agra and Jaipur gharanas.
- Malini Rajurkar - disciple of Govindrao Rajurkar, renowned for tappa, natyageet and khayal styles of singing. Recipient of Sangeet Natak Akademi award.
- Vidyadhar Vyas (b. 1944) - disciple of Narayanrao Vyas.
- Veena Sahasrabuddhe (1948 – 2016) influenced by the Jaipur and Kirana gharanas.
- Ghulam Hassan Shaggan (1928 – 2015) - khayal singer, disciple of Bhai Lal Muhammad, Sitara-e-Imtiaz (Order of Excellence) awarded in 2000 by the Government of Pakistan.
- Ulhas Kashalkar
- Sharad Sathe (1932 - 2019)
- Pallavi Joshi
- Apoorva Gokhale
- Kedar Bodas
- Vijay Sardeshmukh (1952 - 2019) - disciple of Kumar Gandharva.
- Vikas Telang - disciple and son of Dr. Gangadhar Rao Telang. He also learnt Gwalior Gayaki from his Uncle Pt. Krishna Narayan Telang.
- Bharat Telang - disciple and son of Dr. Gangadhar Rao Telang. He also learnt Gwalior Gayaki from his Uncle Pt. Krishna Narayan Telang.
- L.K. Pandit (b. 1934) - disciple of Krishnarao Shankar Pandit.
- Meeta Pandit
- Shashwati Mandal
- Manjusha Kulkarni-Patil
- Vasundhara Komkali (1931 - 2015) - wife of Kumar Gandharva and a recipient of the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award and the Padma Shri.
- Ateeq Hussain Khan
- Gamman Khan
- Mubarak Ali Khan
- Ashiq Ali Khan
- Qudratullah Khan
- Samarth Nagarkar - disciple of Ulhas Kashalkar.
- Omkar Dadarkar - disciple of Ulhas Kashalkar.
- Alick Sengupta - disciple of Ulhas Kashalkar.
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