Glossary of literary terms

This glossary of literary terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in the discussion, classification, analysis, and criticism of all types of literature, such as poetry, novels, and picture books, as well as of grammar, syntax, and language techniques. For a more complete glossary of terms relating to poetry in particular, see Glossary of poetry terms.

A

abecedarius
A special type of acrostic in which the first letter of every word, strophe or verse follows the order of the alphabet.[1]
acatalexis
accent
Any noun used to describe the stress put on a certain syllable while speaking a word. For example, there has been disagreement over the pronunciation of "Abora" in line 41 of "Kubla Khan" by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. According to Herbert Tucker of the website "For Better For Verse", the accent is on the first and last syllable of the word, making its pronunciation: AborA.[2][3]
accentual verse
Accentual verse is common in children's poetry. Nursery rhymes and the less well-known skipping-rope rhymes are the most common form of accentual verse in the English language.[4]
acrostic
A poem or other form of writing in which the first letter, syllable, or word of each line, paragraph, or other recurring feature in the text spells out a word or a message. Example: An Acrostic (1829) by Edgar Allan Poe.[5]
act
adage

A concise, memorable, and usually philosophical aphorism which communicates an important truth derived from experience, custom, or both, and which is considered true and credible because of its tradition of being handed down from generation to generation. Adages are often interesting observations, ethical rules, or skeptical comments on life in general. Similar sayings include proverbs, maxims, and epigrams.
adjective
Any word or phrase which modifies a noun or pronoun, grammatically added to describe, identify, or quantify the related noun or pronoun.[6][7]
adverb
A descriptive word used to modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Typically ending in -ly, adverbs answer the questions when, how, and how many times.[2][8]
aisling
allegory
A type of writing in which the settings, characters, and events stand for other specific people, events, or ideas.[9]
alliteration
Repetition of the initial sounds of words, as in "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers".[10]
allusion
A figure of speech that makes a reference to or a representation of people, places, events, literary works, myths, or works of art, either directly or by implication.[10]
anachronism
The erroneous use of an object, event, idea, or word that does not belong to the same time period as its context.[11]
anacrusis
anadiplosis
anagnorisis
The point in a plot at which a character recognizes the true state of affairs.[12]
analepsis
An interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point the story has reached.[13]
analogue
analogy
A comparison between two things that are otherwise unlike.[14][15]
anapest
A version of the foot in poetry in which the first two syllables of a line are unstressed, followed by a stressed syllable; e.g. intercept (the syllables in and ter are unstressed and followed by cept, which is stressed).[16]
anaphora
anastrophe
anecdote
A short account of a particular incident or event, especially of an interesting or amusing nature.[17]
annals
annotation
antagonist
The adversary of the hero or protagonist of a drama or other literary work; e.g. Iago is the antagonist[18] in William Shakespeare's Othello.[18]
antanaclasis
antecedent
A word or phrase referred to by any relative pronoun.[6]
antepenult
anthology
anticlimax
antihero
antimasque
anti-romance
antimetabole
antinovel
antistrophe
antithesis
antithetical couplet
antonym
aphorism
apocope
Apollonian and Dionysian
apologue
apology
apothegm
aposiopesis
apostrophe
A typographical symbol (') used to indicate the omission of letters or figures, the possessive case (as in "John's book"), or the plural of letters or figures (as in "the 1960's"). In the contraction "can't", the apostrophe replaces two of the letters in the word "cannot".[19]
apron stage
Arcadia
archaism
archetype
aristeia
argument
arsis and thesis
asemic writing
aside
assonance
A phonetic technique where the words utilised sound similar to one another.
astrophic
Stanzas having no particular pattern.[2][8]
asyndeton
The omission of conjunctions between successive clauses. An example is when John F. Kennedy said on January 20, 1961, "...that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty."[20]
aubade
audience
autobiography
autotelic
avant-garde

B

ballad
ballade
ballad stanza
bard
bathos
beast fable
beast poetry
beginning rhyme
belles-lettres
bestiary
beta reader
bibliography
Bildungsroman
biography
blank verse
Verse written in iambic pentameter without rhyme.[8][21]
boulevard theatre
bourgeois tragedy
Bouts-Rimés
breviloquence
burlesque
burletta
Burns stanza
Byronic hero
A type of character in a dramatic work whose defining features derive largely from characters in the writings of English Romantic poet Lord Byron as well as from Byron himself. It is a variant of the archetypal Romantic hero.[22]

C

cadence
caesura
calligram
canon
canso
canticle
canto
canzone
carpe diem
captivity narrative
caricature
carmen figuratum
catachresis
catalexis
catastrophe
catharsis
caudate sonnet
cavalier poet
Celtic art
Celtic Revival
chain rhyme
chanson de geste
chansonnier
chant royal
chapbook
character
characterization
charactonym
Chaucerian stanza
chiasmus
chivalric romance
choriamb
chronicle
chronicle play
cinquain
classical unities
classicism
classification
clerihew
cliché
climax
cloak and dagger
close reading
closed couplet
closet drama
collaborative poetry
colloquialism
comédie larmoyante
comedy
comedy of errors
comedy of humors
comedy of intrigue
comedy of manners
comic relief
commedia dell'arte
commedia erudita
common measure
commonplace book
common rhyme
conceit
concordance
concrete universal
confessional literature
confidant/confidante
conflict
connotation
consistency
consonance
contradiction
context
contrast
convention
coup de théâtre
couplet
Two lines with rhyming ends. Shakespeare often used a couplet to end a sonnet.[8]
courtesy book
courtly love
Cowleyan ode
cradle books
See incunabulum.
craft cycle
crisis
cross acrostic
crown of sonnets
curtain raiser
curtal sonnet

D

dactyl
dandy
Débat
death poem
decadence
decasyllable
decorum
denotation
dénouement
description
deus ex machina
A plot device whereby a seemingly unsolvable problem in a story is suddenly resolved by an unexpected and seemingly unlikely occurrence, typically so much as to seem contrived.[23]
deuteragonist
dialect
dialogic
A work primarily featuring dialogue; a piece of, relating to, or written in dialogue.[11]
dialogue
dibrach
diction

The words selected for use in any oral, written, or literary expression. Diction often centers on opening a great array of lexical possibilities with the connotation of words by maintaining first the denotation of words.[24]
didactic
Intended to teach, instruct, or have a moral lesson for the reader.[11]
digest size
digression
dime novel
diameter
dimeter
A line of verse made up of two feet (two stresses).[9]
dipody
dirge
discourse
dissociation of sensibility
dissonance
distich
distributed stress
dithyramb
diverbium
divine afflatus
doggerel
dolce stil nuove
domestic tragedy
donnée
doppelgänger
double rhyme
drama
dramatic character
dramatic irony
dramatic lyric
dramatic monologue
dramatic proverb
dramatis personæ
The main characters in a dramatic work, presented in a list. Minor characters are often included but off-stage characters typically are not.
dramaturgy
dream allegory
dream vision
droll
dumb show
duodecimo
duologue
duple meter/duple rhythm
dystopia
dynamic character

E

echo verse
eclogue
ekphrasis
A vivid, graphic, or dramatic written commentary or description of another visual form of art.[2][8]
elegy
elision
emblem
emblem book
emendation
end rhyme
end-stopped line
A line in poetry that ends in a pause, indicated by a specific punctuation, such as a period or a semicolon.[9]
English sonnet
enjambment
The continuing of a syntactic unit over the end of a line. Enjambment occurs when the sense of the line overflows the meter and line break.[2]
entr'acte
envoi
epanalepsis
epic poetry
A long poem that narrates the victories and adventures of a hero. Such a poem is often identifiable by its lofty or elegant diction.[8]
epic simile
epic theater
epigraph
epilogue
epiphany
episode
episteme
epistle
epistolary novel
epistrophe
Repetition of a word or phrase at the end of clauses or sentences.[25]
epitaph
epithalamion
epithet
epizeuxis
epode
eponymous author
Erziehungsroman
essay
ethos
eulogy
euphony
euphuism
exaggeration
exegesis
exemplum
exordium
experimental novel
Explication de Texte
exposition
extended metaphor
extrametrical verse
eye rhyme

F

fable
fabliau
fairy tale
falling action
falling rhythm
fancy and imagination
fantasy
farce
feminine ending
feminine rhyme
A rhyme with two syllables, with one stressed and one unstressed. Examples: "merry", "coffee".[2][8]
fiction
figurative language
figure of speech
fin de siècle
flashback
An interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point the story has reached.[13]
flashforward
An interjected scene that takes the narrative forward in time from the current point of the story in literature, film, television, and other media.[13]
flat character
foil
folio
folk drama
folklore
foreshadowing
form
fourteener
frame story
free indirect discourse
free verse
French forms
fustian

G

gallows humor
gathering
genetic fallacy
genre
Georgian poetry
gesta
ghazal
gloss
gnomic verse
golden line
Goliardic verse
Gongorism
Gonzo journalism
Gothic novel
Grand Guignol
Greek chorus
Greek tragedy
Grub Street
Gushi

H

hagiography
haibun
A form of prose written in a terse, haikai style and accompanied by haiku.[26]
haikai
A broad genre comprising the related forms of haiku haikai-renga and haibun.[26]
haiku
A modern term for standalone hokku.[26]
half rhyme
hamartia
headless line
head rhyme
hemistich
hendecasyllable
hendecasyllabic verse
heptameter
heptastich
heresy of paraphrase
heroic couplets
heroic drama
heroic quatrain
heroic stanza
hexameter
A line from a poem that has six feet in its meter. Another name for hexameter is "The Alexandrine".[8]
hexastich
hiatus
high comedy
higher criticism
historical fiction
historical linguistics
historic present
history play
hokku
In Japanese poetry, the opening stanza of a renga or renku (haikai no renga).[27]
holograph
Homeric epithet
homily
Horatian ode
Horatian satire
hovering accent
hubris
hudibrastic
humor
humours
hymn
hymnal stanza
hypallage
hyperbaton
A figure of speech that alters the syntactic order of the words in a sentence or separates words that are ordinarily associated with each other. The term may also be used more generally for all different figures of speech that transpose the natural word order in sentences.[28][29]
hyperbole
hypercatalectic
hypermetrical
hypocorism
hypotactic
A term where different subordinate clauses are used in a sentence to qualify a single verb or modify it.[8]
hysteron proteron

I

iambic pentameter
idiom
idyll
imagery
imagism
incipit
indeterminacy
inference
in medias res
innuendo
interjection
A word that is tacked onto a sentence in order to add strong emotion and which is grammatically unrelated to the rest of the sentence. Interjections are usually followed by an exclamation point.[8]
internal conflict
internal rhyme
interpretation
intertextuality
Refers to the way in which different works of literature interact with and relate to one another to construct meaning.[8]
intuitive description
irony

J

Jacobean era
jeremiad
ji-amari
The use of one or more extra syllabic units (on) above the 5/7 standard in Japanese poetic forms such as waka and haiku.[30]
jintishi
jitarazu
The use of fewer syllabic units (on) than the 5/7 standard in Japanese poetic forms such as waka and haiku.[31]
jueju
juggernaut
juncture
Juvenalian satire

K

kabuki
Kafkaesque
kenning
kigo
In Japanese poetry, a seasonal word or phrase required in haiku and renku.[32]
King's English
kireji
In Japanese poetry, a "cutting word" required in haiku and hokku.[33]
Künstlerroman

L

lacuna
lai
Lake Poets
lament
laureate
lay
legend
legitimate theater
Leonine rhyme
level stress (even accent)
light ending
light poetry
light rhyme
light stress
limerick
linked rhyme
literary ballad
literary criticism
literary movement
literary epic
literary fauvism
literary realism
literary theory
literature
litotes
liturgical drama
logaoedic
logical fallacy
logical stress
logos
long metre
long poem
loose sentence
Lost Generation
low comedy
lullaby
lune
lushi
lyric
A short poem with a song-like quality, or designed to be set to music, often conveying feelings, emotions, or personal thoughts.[9]

M

macaronic language
madrigal
magic realism
malapropism
maqama
Märchen
See fairy tale.
marginalia
Marinism
marivauge
masculine ending
masculine rhyme
masked comedy
masque
maxim
meaning
medieval drama
meiosis
Melic poetry
melodrama
A work that is characterized by extravagant theatricality and by the predominance of plot and physical action over characterization.[11]
memoir
Menippean satire
mesostic
metaphor
Making a comparison between two unlike things without using the words like, as, or than.[9]
metaphysical conceit
metaphorical language
meter
metonymy
metrical accent
metrical foot
metrical structure
Microcosm Theatre
Middle Comedy
miles gloriosus
Miltonic sonnet
mimesis
Minnesang
mise en scène
mock-heroic (mock epic)
mode
monodrama
monody
monogatari
monograph
monologue
monometer (monopody)
monostich
mood
mora
moral
morality play
motif
motivation
mummers' play
Muses
musical comedy
muwashshah
A multi-lined strophic verse form which flourished in Islamic Spain in the 11th century, written in Arabic or Hebrew.[34]
mystery play
mythology

N

narration
The use of written or spoken commentary to convey a story to an audience. Narration is performed by a narrator, which the author of the story develops to deliver information to the audience about the story's plot and characters.
narrative poem
narrative point of view
narratology
narrator
naturalism
A theory or practice in literature emphasizing scientific observation of life without idealization and often including elements of determinism.[11]
neologism
The creation of new words, often arising from acronyms, word combinations, direct translations, or the addition of prefixes or suffixes to existing words.[6]
non-fiction
novel
A genre of fiction that relies on narrative and possesses a considerable length, an expected complexity, and a sequential organization of action into story and plot distinctively. Novels are flexible in form (although prose is the standard), generally focus around one or more characters, and are continuously reshaped and reformed by a speaker.[2]
novella
novelle

O

objective correlative
objective criticism
obligatory scene
octameter
octave
octet
An eight-line stanza of poetry.[8]
ode
A lyrical poem, sometimes sung, that focuses on the glorification of a single subject and its meaning. Often has an irregular stanza structure.[11]
Oedipus complex
onomatopoeia
The formation of a word by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent, such as "cuckoo", "meow", "honk", or "boom".[35]
open couplet
oulipo
ottava rima
A verse form in which each stanza has eight iambic pentameter lines following the rhyme scheme ABABABCC. An ottava rima was often used for long narratives, especially epics and mock-heroic poems.[2]
Oxford Movement
oxymoron

P

palinode
pantoum
pantun
parable
paraclausithyron
paradelle
paradox
paraphrase
pararhyme
paratactic
The combining of various syntactic units, usually prepositions, without the use of conjunctions to form short and simple phrases.[9]
partimen
pastourelle
pathetic fallacy
Pathya Vat
parallelism
parody
pastoral
A work depicting an idealized vision of the rural life of shepherds.[8]
pathos
phrase
A sequence of two or more words forming a unit. In the poem “Kubla Khan” by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, the words “pleasure-dome” are a phrase read not only in this poem, but also in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein when she uses also uses the phrase.[11]
periodical literature
peripetia
persona
personification
phronesis
picaresque novel
plain style
Platonic idealism
plot
poetic diction
poetic transrealism
point of view
polysyndeton
post-colonialism
postmodernism
present perfect
A verb tense that describes actions just finished or continuing from the past into the present. This can also imply that past actions have present effects.[8]
primal scene
procatalepsis
prolepsis

Also called a flashforward.

An interjected scene that takes the narrative forward in time from the current point of the story in literature, film, television, and other media.[13]
prologue
progymnasmata
prose
prosimetrum
prosody
protagonist
protologism
proverb
pruning poem
Psalm
pun
purple prose
pyrrhic

Q

quatrain
quintain

R

recusatio
redaction
In the context of literature, a form of editing in which multiple source texts are combined and altered slightly to create a single document, often by collecting a series of writings on a similar theme and assembling them into a definitive and coherent work.
red herring
refrain
regency novel
regionalism
renga
A genre of Japanese collaborative poetry.[36]
renku
In Japanese poetry, a form of popular collaborative linked verse formerly known as haikai no renga, or haikai.[37]
renshi
A form of collaborative poetry pioneered by Makoto Ooka in Japan in the 1980s.[38]
repetition
reverse chronology
rhapsodes
rhetoric
rhetorical device
rhetorical operations
rhetorical question
rhyme
rhymed prose
rhyme royal
rhythm
A measured pattern of words and phrases arranged by sound, time, or events. These patterns are [created] in verse or prose by use of stressed and unstressed syllables.[2][24]
rising action
robinsonade
roman à clef
romance
Romantic hero
romanzo d'appendice
round-robin story
Ruritanian romance
Russian formalism

S

Saj'
satire
scansion
scene
scènes à faire
sea shanty
sensibility
sestet
setting
Shadorma
Shakespearean sonnet
Sicilian octave
simile
A comparison of two different things that utilizes “like” or “as”.[8]
slant rhyme
skaz
sobriquet
soliloquy
sonnet
A 14-line poem written in iambic pentameter. There are two types of sonnets: Shakespearean and Italian. The Shakespearean sonnet is written with three quatrain and a couplet in ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG rhythmic pattern. An Italian sonnet is written in two stanzas with an octave followed by a septet in ABBA, ABBA, CDECDE or CDCDCD rhythmic pattern.[8]
sonneteer
speaker
spondee
A foot consisting of two syllables of approximately equal stress.[8]
Spenserian stanza
sprung rhythm
stanza
A group of lines in a poem offset by a space and then continuing with the next group of lines with a set pattern or number of lines.[8]
static character
stereotype
stichic
Having lines of the same meter and length throughout, but not organized into regular stanzas. An example is the form of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem "Frost at Midnight".[2]
strambotto
stream of consciousness writing
structuralism
sublime
Of a profound and immeasurable experience, unable to be rationalized.[2]
subplot
syllogism
symbolism
synecdoche
A term where an entire idea is expressed by something smaller, such as a phrase or a single word; one part of the idea expresses the whole. This concept can also be reversed.[8]
synesthesia
syntax
The study of how words are arranged in a sentence.[2]

T

tautology
tableau
tail rhyme
Tagelied
tale
tanka
In Japanese poetry, a short poem in the form 5,7,5,7,7 syllabic units.[39]
tan-renga
In Japanese poetry, a tanka where the upper part is composed by one poet and the lower part by another.[40]
techne
telestich
A poem or other form of writing in which the last letter, syllable or word of each line, paragraph or other recurring feature in the text spells out a word or a message.[41]
tenor
tercet
terza rima
tetrameter
tetrastich
text
textual criticism
textuality
Theatre of Cruelty
Theatre of the Absurd
theme
thesis
thesis play
third-person narrative
threnody
tirade
tone
tornada
In Occitan lyric poetry, a final, shorter stanza (cobla) addressed to a patron, lady, or friend.[42]
tract
tragedy
tragedy of blood
tragic flaw
See hamartia.
tragic hero
tragic irony
tragicomedy
transcendentalism
transferred epithet
transition
translation
tribrach
trimeter
triolet
triple rhyme
triple meter
triple rhythm
triplet
tristich
tritagonist
trivium
trobar clus
trochee
A two-syllable foot with the accent syllable on the first foot.[2][8]
trope
troubadour
trouvère
tuckerization
truncated line
tumbling verse
type character
type scene
A literary convention employed by a narrator across a set of scenes or related to scenes already familiar to the audience. Similarities with and differences from the established type in later scenes are used to illuminate developments in plot and character.

U

ubi sunt
underground art
underground press
understatement
unities
See classical unities.
universality
University Wits
uta monogatari
unreliable narrator

V

variable syllable
variorum
A work of textual criticism which collates all known variants of a text, with all variations and emendations set side-by-side so that a reader may track how textual decisions have been made in the preparation of the text for publication. The term is an abbreviation of the Latin cum notis variorum ("with notes by various people").
Varronian satire (Menippean satire)
vates
Vaudeville
verb displacement
verisimilitude
verism
vers de société
vers libre
verse
verse paragraph
versiprose
verso
Victorian literature
vignette
villain
villanelle
virelay
Virgule
voice
volta

A turn or switch that emphasizes a change in ideas or emotions. It can be marked by the words “but” or “yet”. In a sonnet, this change separates the octave from the sestet.[43]
Vorticism
vulgate
The use of informal, common speech, particularly of uneducated people. Similar to the use of vernacular.[11]

W

waka
Wardour Street English
A pseudo-archaic form of diction affected by some writers, particularly those of historical fiction.[44]
weak ending
weak foot
well-made play
Wellerism
Western fiction
wit
word accent
wrenched accent

Z

za
The site of a renga session; also, the sense of dialogue and community present in such a session.[45]
zappai

See also

References

  1. Wiktor Jarosław Darasz, Mały przewodnik po wierszu polskim, Kraków 2003, p. 44–45 (in Polish).
  2. Stephen Greenblatt et al. The Norton Anthology of English Literature, volume D, 9th edition (Norton, 2012)
  3. "For Better For Verse". University of Virginia.
  4. Cuddon, John Anthony (1998). A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Wiley. p. 7. ISBN 9780631202714.
  5. "Acrostic Poetry". OutstandingWriting.com. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
  6. Jack Lynch. "Guide to Grammar and Style". Retrieved January 28, 2013.. Online edition of the book The English Language: A User's Guide by Jack Lynch.
  7. "Writing Centre". University of Ottawa.
  8. "The Norton Anthology of Poetry". W. W. Norton.
  9. "Glossary of Terms". Gale Cengage.
  10. Hirsch, E.D. Jr. et al., eds. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002. ISBN 9780618226474 p148
  11. "Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster.
  12. Baldick, Chris. Oxford Dictionary Of Literary Terms, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 9780199208272 p12
  13. Jung, Berenike. Narrating Violence In Post-9/11 Action Cinema: Terrorist Narratives, Cinematic Narration, and Referentiality. Springer, 2010. ISBN 9783531926025 p67
  14. "Definition of ANALOGY". www.merriam-webster.com.
  15. "Analogy Examples and Definition - Literary Devices". literarydevices.com. 30 September 2014.
  16. "Anapest". Poetry Foundation. 21 May 2018.
  17. "the definition of anecdote". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  18. "the definition of antagonist". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
  19. "Definition of APOSTROPHE".
  20. Keller, Stefan Daniel. The Development of Shakespeare's Rhetoric: A Study of Nine Plays. Volume 136 of Schweizer anglistische Arbeiten. Narr Francke Attempto, 2009. ISBN 9783772083242. p54
  21. Hirsch, E.D. Jr. et al., eds. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002. ISBN 9780618226474 p149
  22. Christiansen, Rupert, Romantic Affinities: Portraits From an Age, 1780–1830, 1989, Cardinal, ISBN 0-7474-0404-6
  23. "deus ex machina". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 23 Apr 2018.
  24. Cuddon, J. A., and Claire Preston. A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1998.
  25. Garner, Bryan A. (2016). Garner's Modern English Usage (4 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1003. ISBN 978-0-19-049148-2.
  26. Shirane, Haruo. Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the Poetry of Bashō. Stanford University Press, 1998. ISBN 9780804730990 p294
  27. Blyth, Reginald Horace. Haiku. Volume 1, Eastern culture. The Hokuseido Press, 1981. ISBN 0-89346-158-X p123ff.
  28. Kevin Wilson; Jennifer Wauson (2010). The AMA Handbook of Business Writing: The Ultimate Guide to Style, Grammar, Usage, Punctuation, Construction, and Formatting. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-8144-1589-4.
  29. Stephen Cushman; Clare Cavanagh; Jahan Ramazani; Paul Rouzer (26 August 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics: Fourth Edition. Princeton University Press. p. 647. ISBN 978-1-4008-4142-4.
  30. Mostow, Joshua S. Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image. University of Hawaii Press, 1996. ISBN 9780824817053 p12
  31. Crowley, Cheryl. Haikai Poet Yosa Buson and the Bashō Revival. Brill, 2006. ISBN 978-9004157095 p54
  32. Keene, Donald. World Within Walls: Japanese Literature of the Pre-Modern Era, 1600-1867 Henry Holt, 1976. ISBN 9780030136269 p575
  33. Shirane, Haruo. Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the Poetry of Bashō. Stanford University Press, 1998. ISBN 9780804730990 p100ff.
  34. Bleiberg, Germán et al. Dictionary of the Literature of the Iberian Peninsula: A-k. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1993. ISBN 9780313287312 p900
  35. "the definition of onomatopoeia". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  36. Carter, Steven D. Three Poets at Yuyama, University of California, 1983, ISBN 0-912966-61-0 p.3
  37. Shirane, Haruo. Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the Poetry of Bashō. Stanford University Press, 1998. ISBN 9780804730990 p297
  38. Look Japan Volume 48, issues 553-564. 2002, p4
  39. Vos, Jos. Eeuwige reizigers: Een bloemlezing uit de klassieke Japanese literatuur. De Arbeiderspers, 2008. ISBN 9789029566032 p45
  40. Shirane, Haruo. Traditional Japanese Literature: An Anthology, Beginnings To 1600. Columbia University Press, 2008. ISBN 9780231136976 p874
  41. TalkTalk Dictionary of Difficult Words - telestich "Dictionary of Difficult Words". TalkTalk. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
  42. Chambers, Frank M. An Introduction to Old Provenc̦al Versification: Volume 167 of Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society, 1985. ISBN 9780871691675 p32ff.
  43. Cuddon, J. A. "A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory." Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1998. ISBN 978-0140513639.
  44. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed. (2007). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3575
  45. Shirane, Haruo. Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the Poetry of Bashō. Stanford University Press, 1998. ISBN 9780804730990 p299

Further reading

  • M. H. Abrams. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Thomson-Wadsworth, 2005. ISBN 1-4130-0456-3.
  • Chris Baldick. The Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford Univ. Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-860883-7.
  • Chris Baldick. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford Univ. Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-280118-X.
  • Edwin Barton & G. A. Hudson. Contemporary Guide To Literary Terms. Houghton-Mifflin, 2003. ISBN 0-618-34162-5.
  • Mark Bauerlein. Literary Criticism: An Autopsy. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8122-1625-3.
  • Karl Beckson & Arthur Ganz. Literary Terms: A Dictionary. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989. ISBN 0-374-52177-8.
  • Peter Childs. The Routledge Dictionary of Literary Terms. Routledge, 2005. ISBN 0-415-34017-9.
  • J. A. Cuddon. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Penguin Books, 2000. ISBN 0-14-051363-9 .
  • Dana Gioia. The Longman Dictionary of Literary Terms: Vocabulary for the Informed Reader. Longman, 2005. ISBN 0-321-33194-X.
  • Garner, Bryan. Garner's Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press, 2016. ISBN 9780190491482
  • Sharon Hamilton. Essential Literary Terms: A Brief Norton Guide with Exercises. W. W. Norton, 2006. ISBN 0-393-92837-3.
  • William Harmon. A Handbook to Literature. Prentice Hall, 2005. ISBN 0-13-134442-0.
  • X. J. Kennedy, et al. Handbook of Literary Terms: Literature, Language, Theory. Longman, 2004. ISBN 0-321-20207-4.
  • V. B. Leitch. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. W. W. Norton, 2001. ISBN 0-393-97429-4.
  • Frank Lentricchia & Thomas McLaughlin. Critical Terms for Literary Study. Univ. of Chicago Press, 1995. ISBN 0-226-47203-5.
  • David Mikics. A New Handbook of Literary Terms. Yale Univ. Press, 2007. ISBN 0-300-10636-X.
  • Ross Murfin & S. M. Ray. The Bedford Glossary of Critical and Literary Terms. Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. ISBN 0-312-25910-7.
  • John Peck & Martin Coyle. Literary Terms and Criticism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-333-96258-3.
  • Edward Quinn. A Dictionary of Literary And Thematic Terms. Checkmark Books, 2006. ISBN 0-8160-6244-7.
  • Lewis Turco. The Book of Literary Terms: The Genres of Fiction, Drama, Nonfiction, Literary Criticism, and Scholarship. Univ. Press of New England, 1999. ISBN 0-87451-955-1.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.