Euglenozoa

The euglenozoa are a large group of flagellate Excavata. They include a variety of common free-living species, as well as a few important parasites, some of which infect humans. There are two main subgroups, the euglenids and kinetoplastids. Euglenozoa are unicellular, mostly around 15–40 μm (0.00059–0.00157 in) in size, although some euglenids get up to 500 μm (0.020 in) long.[2]

Euglenozoa
Two Euglena
Scientific classification
Domain:
(unranked):
Phylum:
Euglenozoa

Classes and unplaced genera

Calkinsia
Diplonemea
Euglenoidea
Kinetoplastea
Postgaardi
Symbiontida

Synonyms
  • Euglenoida Cavalier-Smith, 1978

Structure

Most euglenozoa have two flagella, which are inserted parallel to one another in an apical or subapical pocket. In some these are associated with a cytostome or mouth, used to ingest bacteria or other small organisms. This is supported by one of three sets of microtubules that arise from the flagellar bases; the other two support the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the cell.[3]

Some other euglenozoa feed through absorption, and many euglenids possess chloroplasts, the only eukaryotes outside Diaphoretickes to do so without performing kleptoplasty,[4] and so obtain energy through photosynthesis. These chloroplasts are surrounded by three membranes and contain chlorophylls A and B, along with other pigments, so are probably derived from a captured green alga. Reproduction occurs exclusively through cell division. During mitosis, the nuclear membrane remains intact, and the spindle microtubules form inside of it.[3]

The group is characterized by the ultrastructure of the flagella. In addition to the normal supporting microtubules or axoneme, each contains a rod (called paraxonemal), which has a tubular structure in one flagellum and a latticed structure in the other. Based on this, two smaller groups have been included here: the diplonemids and Postgaardi.[5]

Classification

The euglenozoa are generally accepted as monophyletic. They are related to Percolozoa; the two share mitochondria with disk-shaped cristae, which only occurs in a few other groups.[6] Both probably belong to a larger group of eukaryotes called the Excavata.[7] This grouping, though, has been challenged.[8]

Phylogeny

The phylogeny based on the work of Cavalier-Smith 2016.[9]

Taxonomy

Phylum Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981 emend. Simpson 1997[9][10] [Euglenobionta]

  • Subphylum Glycomonada Cavalier-Smith 2016
    • Class Diplonemea Cavalier-Smith 1993 emend. Simpson 1997 [Diplosonematea; Diplonemia Cavalier-Smith 1993]
      • Order Diplonemida Cavalier-Smith 1993 [Hemistasiida]
        • Family Hemistasiidae Cavalier-Smith 2016 [Entomosigmaceae]
        • Family Eupelagonemidae Okamoto & Keeling 2018
        • Family Diplonemidae Cavalier-Smith 1993 [Rhynchopodaceae Skuja 1948 ex Cavalier-Smith 1993]
    • Class Kinetoplastea Honigberg 1963 emend. Margulis 1974 [Kinetoplastida Honigberg 1963; Kinetoplasta Honigberg 1963 stat. nov.]
      • Family ?Cephalothamniidae
      • Order ?Bordnamonadida
        • Family Bordnamonadidae Cavalier-Smith 2013
      • Order ?Trypanophidida
        • Family Trypanophididae Poche 1911
      • Subclass Prokinetoplastina Vickerman 2004
        • Order Prokinetoplastida Vickerman 2004
          • Family Ichthyobodonidae Isaksen et al., 2007
      • Subclass Metakinetoplastina Vickerman 2004
        • Order Neobodonida Vickerman 2004
          • Family Rhynchomonadidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
          • Family Neobodonidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
        • Order Parabodonida Vickerman 2004
          • Family Parabodonidae Cavalier-Smith 2016 [Cryptobiaceae Poche 1911; Trypanoplasmatidae Hartmann & Chagas 1910]
        • Order Bodonida Hollande 1952 emend. Vickerman 1976 [Eubodonida Vickerman 2004]
          • Family Bodonidae Bütschli 1883 [Bodonaceae Lemmermann 1914; Bodoninae Bütschli 1883; Pleuromonadidae Kent 1880]
        • Order Trypanosomatida Kent 1880 stat. n. Hollande, 1952 emend. Vickerman 2004
  • Subphylum Plicomonada Cavalier-Smith 2017
    • Infraphylum Postgaardia Cavalier-Smith 2016 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 2017
      • Class Postgaardea Cavalier-Smith 1998 s.s. [Symbiontida Yubuki et al., 2009]
        • Order Bihospitida Cavalier-Smith 2016
          • Family Bihospitidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
        • Order Postgaardida Cavalier-Smith 2003
          • Family Calkinsiidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
          • Family Postgaardidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
    • Infraphylum Euglenoida Bütschli 1884 emend. Senn 1900 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith, 2017 [Euglenophyta; Euglenida Buetschli 1884; Euglenoidina Buetschli 1884]
      • Parvphylum Entosiphona Cavalier-Smith 2016 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 2017
        • Class Entosiphonea Cavalier-Smith 2016
          • Order Entosiphonida Cavalier-Smith 2016
            • Family Entosiphonidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
      • Parvphylum Dipilida Cavalier-Smith 2016 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 2017
        • Class Stavomonadea Cavalier-Smith 2016 [Petalomonadea Cavalier-Smith 1993; Petalomonadophyceae]
          • Subclass Heterostavia Cavalier-Smith 2016
            • Order Heterostavida Cavalier-Smith 2016
              • Family Serpenomonadidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
          • Subclass Homostavia Cavalier-Smith 2016
            • Order Decastavida Cavalier-Smith 2016a
              • Family Decastavidae Cavalier-Smith 2016a
              • Family Keelungiidae Cavalier-Smith 2016a
            • Order Petalomonadida Cavalier-Smith 1993 [Sphenomonadales Leedale 1967; Sphenomonadina Leedale 1967]
              • Family Sphenomonadidae Kent 1880
              • Family Petalomonadidae [Petalomonadaceae Buetschli 1884; Notosolenaceae Stokes 1888; Scytomonadaceae Ritter von Stein 1878]
        • Class Ploeotarea Cavalier-Smith 2016
          • Order Ploeotiida Cavalier-Smith 1993
            • Family Lentomonadidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
            • Family Ploeotiidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
        • Superclass Spirocuta Cavalier-Smith 2016
          • Class Peranemea Cavalier-Smith 1993 emend. Cavalier-Smith 2016
            • Subclass Acroglissia Cavalier-Smith 2016
              • Order Acroglissida Cavalier-Smith 2016
                • Family Teloproctidae Cavalier-Smith 2016a
            • Subclass Peranemia Cavalier-Smith 2016
              • Order Peranemida Bütschli 1884 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1993
                • Family Peranematidae [Peranemataceae Dujardin 1841; Pseudoperanemataceae Christen 1962]
            • Subclass Anisonemia Cavalier-Smith 2016
              • Order Anisonemida Cavalier-Smith 2016 [Heteronematales Leedale 1967]
                • Family Anisonemidae Saville Kent, 1880 em. Cavalier-Smith 2016 [Heteronemidae Calkins 1926; Zygoselmidaceae Kent 188]
              • Order Natomonadida Cavalier-Smith 2016
                • Suborder Metanemina Cavalier-Smith 2016
                  • Family Neometanemidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
                • Suborder Rhabdomonadina Leedale 1967 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1993 [Astasida Ehrenberg 1831; Rhabdomonadia Cavalier-Smith 1993; Rhabdomonadophyceae; Rhabdomonadales]
                  • Family Distigmidae Hollande, 1942
                  • Family Astasiidae Saville Kent, 1884 [Astasiaceae Ehrenberg orth. mut. Senn 1900; Rhabdomonadaceae Fott 1971; Menoidiaceae Buetschli 188; Menoidiidae Hollande, 1942]
          • Class Euglenophyceae Schoenichen 1925 emend. Marin & Melkonian 2003 [Euglenea Bütschli 1884 emend. Busse & Preisfeld 2002; Euglenoidea Bütschli 1884; Euglenida Bütschli 1884] (Photosynthetic clade)
            • Subclass Rapazia Cavalier-Smith 2016
              • Order Rapazida Cavalier-Smith 2016
                • Family Rapazidae Cavalier-Smith 2016
            • Subclass Euglenophycidae Busse and Preisfeld, 2003
              • Order Eutreptiida [Eutreptiales Leedale 1967 emend. Marin & Melkonian 2003; Eutreptiina Leedale 1967]
                • Family Eutreptiaceae [Eutreptiaceae Hollande 1942]
              • Order Euglenida Ritter von Stein, 1878 stat. n. Calkins, 1926 [Euglenales Engler 1898 emend. Marin & Melkonian 2003; Euglenina Buetschli 1884; Euglenomorphales Leedale 1967; Colaciales Smith 1938]
                • Family Euglenamorphidae Hollande, 1952 stat. n. Cavalier-Smith 2016 [Euglenomorphaceae; Hegneriaceae Brumpt & Lavier 1924]
                • Family Phacidae [Phacaceae Kim et al. 2010]
                • Family Euglenidae Bütschli 1884 [Euglenaceae Dujardin 1841 emend. Kim et al. 2010; Colaciaceae Smith 1933] (Mucilaginous clade)

References

  1. T. Cavalier-Smith (1981). "Eukaryote Kingdoms: Seven or Nine?". BioSystems. 14 (3–4): 461–481. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(81)90050-2. PMID 7337818.
  2. "Euglenozoa". Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  3. David J. Patterson (1999). "The Diversity of Eukaryotes". American Naturalist. 154 (S4): S96–S124. doi:10.1086/303287. PMID 10527921.
  4. Dorrell, R. G.; Smith, A. G. (2011). "Do Red and Green Make Brown?: Perspectives on Plastid Acquisitions within Chromalveolates". Eukaryotic Cell. 10 (7): 856–868. doi:10.1128/EC.00326-10. PMC 3147421. PMID 21622904.
  5. Alastair G. B. Simpson (1997). "The Identity and Composition of Euglenozoa". Archiv für Protistenkunde. 148 (3): 318–328. doi:10.1016/s0003-9365(97)80012-7.
  6. Baldauf, S. L.; Roger, A. J.; Wenk-Siefert, I.; Doolittle, W. Ford (2000). "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data". Science. 290 (5493): 972–977. Bibcode:2000Sci...290..972B. doi:10.1126/science.290.5493.972. PMID 11062127.
  7. Alastair G. Simpson (2003). "Cytoskeletal organization, phylogenetic affinities and systematics in the contentious taxon Excavata (Eukaryota)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53 (Pt 6): 1759–1777. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02578-0. PMID 14657103.
  8. Cavalier-Smith T (December 2009). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biol Lett. 6 (3): 342–345. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948. PMC 2880060. PMID 20031978.
  9. Thomas Cavalier-Smith (2016). "Higher Classification and Phylogeny of Euglenozoa". European Journal of Protistology. 56: 250–276. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2016.09.003. PMID 27889663.
  10. Thomas Cavalier-Smith (2017). "Euglenoid pellicle morphogenesis and evolution in light of comparative ultrastructure and trypanosomatid biology: Semi-conservative microtubule/strip duplication, strip shaping and transformation". European Journal of Protistology. 61 (A): 137–179. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2017.09.002. PMID 29073503.
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