He studied classical archaeology, philology and art history at the universities of Leipzig and Munich, receiving his doctorate in 1921. As a student, his influences were archaeologist Franz Studniczka (Leipzig) and art historian Heinrich Wölfflin (Munich). Following graduation, he took a study trip to Italy and Greece, where he met with Ernst Buschor in Athens. In 1925 he qualified as a lecturer at the University of Würzburg, and subsequently worked as a conservator at the Martin von Wagner Museum.
In 1931 he became an associate professor at the University of Jena, and two years later, attained a full professorship in Frankfurt. From 1941 to 1963 he was a professor at the University of Bonn, where he also served as director of the Akademisches Kunstmuseum.
- Zur Zeitbestimmung der Strengrotfigurigen Vasenmalerei und der gleichzeitigen Plastik, 1920.
- Griechische Vasenbilder, 1922 – Greek vase figures.
- Die archaischen Marmorbildwerke der Akropolis (with Hans Schrader and Walter-Herwig Schuchhardt, 1939) – Archaic marble works of the Acropolis.
- Archaische Plastik auf der Akropolis, 1941 – Archaic sculpture of the Acropolis.
- Griechische Klassik, 1946 – Classical Greek.
- Phidiasprobleme, 1947 – Phidias problems.
- Die Darstellung des Menschen in der griechischen Kunst, 1948 – The representation of man in Greek art.
- Alkamenes-Probleme, 1952 – Alcamenes problems.
- Antike Klassik in heutiger Sicht, 1956 – The classics from a modern perspective.
- Die Kunst der Westgriechen in Sizilien und Unteritalien, 1963 – Art of western Greece in Sicily and southern Italy.
- Ancient Greek sculpture of South Italy and Sicily (Photos by Max Hirmer, translated by Audrey Hicks; 1965).
- The art of Magna Graecia : Greek art in southern Italy and Sicily (Photos by Max Hirmer, translated by Audrey Hicks; 1965).
- Studien zur nordostgriechischen Kunst, 1975 – Studies of northeastern Greek art.
- Langlotz, Ernst In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 13, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-428-00194-X, S. 607 f.
- Kraatz - Menges / edited by Rudolf Vierhaus Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopaedie
- Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology by Nancy Thomson de Grummond
- HathiTrust Digital Library (published works)