Dicalcium phosphate is the calcium phosphate with the formula CaHPO4 and its dihydrate. The "di" prefix in the common name arises because the formation of the HPO42– anion involves the removal of two protons from phosphoric acid, H3PO4. It is also known as dibasic calcium phosphate or calcium monohydrogen phosphate. Dicalcium phosphate is used as a food additive, it is found in some toothpastes as a polishing agent and is a biomaterial.
calcium hydrogen phosphate
calcium hydrogen phosphate,
phosphoric acid calcium salt (1:1)
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E341(ii) (antioxidants, ...)|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||136.06 g/mol (anhydrous)|
|Density||2.929 g/cm3 (anhydrous)|
2.31 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
|0.02 g/100 mL (anhydrous)|
0.02 g/100 mL (dihydrate)
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
- H3PO4 + Ca(OH)2 → CaHPO4
To prevent degradation that would form hydroxyapatite, sodium pyrophosphate or trimagnesium phosphate octahydrate are added when for example, dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate is to be used as a polishing agent in toothpaste.
- CaCl2 + (NH4)2HPO4 → CaHPO4•2H2O
Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate is formed in "brushite" calcium phosphate cements (CPC's), which have medical applications. An example of the overall setting reaction in the formation of "β-TCP/MCPM" (β-tricalcium phosphate/monocalcium phosphate) calcium phosphate cements is:
- Ca3(PO4)2 + Ca(H2PO4)2•H2O + 7 H2O → 4 CaHPO4•2H2O
Three (3) forms of dicalcium phosphate are known:
- dihydrate, CaHPO4•2H2O ('DPCD'), the mineral brushite
- hemihydrate, CaHPO4•0.5H2O
- anhydrous CaHPO4, ('DCPA'), the mineral monetite. Below pH 4.8 the dihydrate and anhydrous forms of dicalcium phosphate are the most stable (insoluble) of the calcium phosphates.
The structure of the anhydrous and dihydrated forms have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The dihydrate (shown in table above) adopts a layered structure.
Uses and occurrence
Dibasic calcium phosphate is mainly used as a dietary supplement in prepared breakfast cereals, dog treats, enriched flour, and noodle products. It is also used as a tableting agent in some pharmaceutical preparations, including some products meant to eliminate body odor. Dibasic calcium phosphate is also found in some dietary calcium supplements (e.g. Bonexcin). It is used in poultry feed. It is also used in some toothpastes as a tartar control agent.
Heating dicalcium phosphate gives dicalcium diphosphate, a useful polishing agent:
- 2 CaHPO4 → Ca2P2O7 + H2O
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