Den seal impressions
In 1985, the German Archaeological Institute discovered seal impressions of a cylinder seal in the tomb of First Dynasty king Den. They were published by Günter Dreyer the following year. The impressions are the earliest confirmed king list for ancient Egypt.
The names are listed in following order:
The list bolsters the argument that Narmer was the founder of the First Dynasty as opposed to being the last of the pre-unification kings of Thinis. Also of importance is the absence of Menes as scholarly consensus believe Menes was a later variation of Narmer's name.
- Günter Dreyer: Ein Siegel der frühzeitlichen Königsnekropole von Abydos, in: MDAIK 43 (1986). 33-43
- Hawass, Zahi et al. (2003). Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.