Den seal impressions

In 1985, the German Archaeological Institute discovered seal impressions of a cylinder seal in the tomb of First Dynasty king Den. They were published by Günter Dreyer the following year. The impressions are the earliest confirmed king list for ancient Egypt.[1]

The names are listed in following order:

The list bolsters the argument that Narmer was the founder of the First Dynasty as opposed to being the last of the pre-unification kings of Thinis. Also of importance is the absence of Menes as scholarly consensus believe Menes was a later variation of Narmer's name.[2]


  1. Günter Dreyer: Ein Siegel der frühzeitlichen Königsnekropole von Abydos, in: MDAIK 43 (1986). 33-43
  2. Hawass, Zahi et al. (2003). Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
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