Constitution of Egypt
The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt.
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The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a referendum in January 2014. The constitution took effect after the results were announced on 18 January 2014. A constitutional amendments referendum was held from 20 to 22 April 2019.
In July 2013, after the ousting of former President Mohammed Morsi, the military announced the schedule for the development of the constitution, with the vote to occur around the end of November 2013. Two different committees were involved in amending the 2012 constitution. The constitution replaces the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 which came into effect under Morsi.
The constitution adopted in 2014, like the constitution drafted under Morsi, is based on the Egyptian Constitution of 1971.
The 2014 constitution sets up a president and parliament. The president is elected to a four-year term and may serve 2 terms. The parliament may impeach the president. Under the constitution, there is a guarantee of equality between the sexes and an absolute freedom of belief, but Islam is the state religion. The military retains the ability to appoint the national Minister of Defense for the next 8 years. Under the constitution, political parties may not be based on "religion, race, gender or geography"; the law regarding Egyptian political parties that regulated the 2011-2012 parliamentary elections included a similar clause prohibiting religious parties, though it was not enforced. The document guarantees an absolute freedom of expression that is subject to broad exceptions. The constitution protects texts pertaining to presidency terms, freedoms and equality from being amended in an entrenched clause in article 226, except with more guarantees.
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