Chlorine pentafluoride

Chlorine pentafluoride is an interhalogen compound with formula ClF5. This colourless gas is a strong oxidant that was once a candidate oxidizer for rockets. The molecule adopts a square pyramidal structure with C4v symmetry,[1] as confirmed by its high-resolution 19F NMR spectrum.[2]

Chlorine pentafluoride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.734
RTECS number
  • FO2975000
Molar mass 130.445 g mol−1
Appearance colorless gas
Density 4.5 kg/m3 (g/L)
Melting point −103 °C (−153 °F; 170 K)
Boiling point −13.1 °C (8.4 °F; 260.0 K)
Square pyramidal
310.73 J K−1 mol−1
−238.49 kJ mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references


Some of the earliest research on the preparation was classified.[3][4] It was first prepared by fluorination of chlorine trifluoride at high temperatures and high pressures:[3]

ClF3 + F2 → ClF5
ClF + 2F2 → ClF5
Cl2 + 5F2 → 2ClF5
CsClF4 + F2 → CsF + ClF5

NiF2 catalyzes this reaction.[5]

Certain metal fluorides, MClF4 (i.e. KClF4, RbClF4, CsClF4), react with F2 to produce ClF5 and the corresponding alkali metal fluoride.[4]


In a highly exothermic reaction, ClF5 reacts with water to produce chloryl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride:[6]

+ 2 H
+ 4 HF

It is also a strong fluorinating agent. At room temperature it reacts readily with all elements (including otherwise "inert" elements like platinum and gold) except noble gases, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine.[2]

See also


  1. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 833. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  2. Pilipovich, D.; Maya, W.; Lawton, E.A.; Bauer, H.F.; Sheehan, D. F.; Ogimachi, N. N.; Wilson, R. D.; Gunderloy, F. C.; Bedwell, V. E. (1967). "Chlorine pentafluoride. Preparation and Properties". Inorganic Chemistry. 6 (10): 1918. doi:10.1021/ic50056a036.
  3. Clark, John D. (1972). Ignition! An Informal History of Liquid Rocket Propellants (PDF). Rutgers University Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 0-8135-0725-1.
  4. Smith D. F. (1963). "Chlorine Pentafluoride". Science. 141 (3585): 1039–1040. doi:10.1126/science.141.3585.1039. PMID 17739492.
  5. Šmalc A, Žemva B, Slivnik J, Lutar K (1981). "On the Synthesis of Chlorine Pentafluoride". Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. 17 (4): 381–383. doi:10.1016/S0022-1139(00)81783-2.
  6. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 834. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
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