Chlorine azide

Chlorine azide (ClN3) is an inorganic compound that was discovered in 1908 by Friedrich Raschig.[1] Concentrated ClN
3
is notoriously unstable and may spontaneously detonate at any temperature.[2]

Chlorine azide
Names
Other names
Chlorine nitride; Nitrogen chloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
Properties
ClN3
Molar mass 77.4731 g/mol
Appearance Yellow orange liquid; colorless gas
Melting point −100 °C (−148 °F; 173 K)
Boiling point −15 °C (5 °F; 258 K)
Solubility Soluble in butane, pentane, benzene, methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulfide; slightly soluble in water
Explosive data
Shock sensitivity Extreme
Friction sensitivity Extreme
Hazards
Main hazards Extremely sensitive explosive
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
0
4
Related compounds
Related compounds
Fluorine azide Bromine azide Hydrazoic acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Preparation and handling

Chlorine azide is prepared by passing chlorine gas over silver azide, or by an addition of acetic acid to a solution of sodium hypochlorite and sodium azide.[3]

When treated with ammonia it is conceivable that one or more of the three possible azinamines, NH2N3, NH(N3)2, and N(N3)3 may be formed.

Explosive characteristics

Chlorine azide is extremely sensitive. It may explode, sometimes even without apparent provocation; it is thus too sensitive to be used commercially unless first diluted in solution. Chlorine azide reacts explosively with 1,3-butadiene, ethane, ethene, methane, propane, phosphorus, silver azide, and sodium. On contact with acid, chlorine azide decomposes, evolving toxic and corrosive hydrogen chloride gas.[4]

Regulatory information

Its shipment is subject to strict reporting requirements and regulations by the US Department of Transportation.

References

  1. Frierson, W. J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide. II. Interaction of Chlorine Azide and Silver Azide. Azino Silver Chloride, N3AgCl". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 65 (9): 1698–1700. doi:10.1021/ja01249a013.
  2. Frierson, W. J.; Kronrad, J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide, ClN3. I.". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 65 (9): 1696–1698. doi:10.1021/ja01249a012.
  3. Raschig, F. (1908). "Über Chlorazid N3Cl". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 41 (3): 4194–4195. doi:10.1002/cber.190804103130.
  4. CID 61708 from PubChem
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