Ceramic heater

A ceramic heater as a consumer product is a space heater that generates heat using a heating element of PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) ceramic.[1][2] Ceramic heaters are usually portable and typically used for heating a room or small office, and are of similar utility to metal-element fan heaters.[3]

Heating principle

PTC ceramic material is semi-conductive and when voltage is applied to it, the power decreases quickly as it reaches a certain temperature according to the particular composition of the ceramic. The ceramic elements are in contact with aluminium fins, thereby heating the fins up. A fan blowing across the fins heats the air.[1]

Differences from other electric heaters

Electric heating elements made of resistance wire also have a positive temperature coefficient of resistivity, but do not increase their resistance enough to be self-regulating; they are typically used with the wires red-hot. The ceramic, on the other hand, increases its resistance sharply at the Curie temperatures of the crystalline components, typically 120 degrees Celsius, and remains below 200 degrees Celsius, providing a significant safety advantage.[4]


  1. Wang, Xia; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang (1 November 2011). "Hot embossing and thermal bonding of poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chips using positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 401 (8): 2657–2665. doi:10.1007/s00216-011-5377-5. ISSN 1618-2650. PMID 21922306.
  2. Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan. Fuji Marketing Research Company. 1992.
  3. "Ceramic Heaters Archives". Space Heaters. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  4. US patent 4703153

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