Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2. The compound is used frequently as a building block in organic chemistry as well as an industrial and chemical non-polar solvent. It has an "ether-like" odor, but commercial samples are typically contaminated with foul-smelling impurities.
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||76.13 g·mol−1|
|Density||1.539 g/cm3 (−186°C)|
1.2927 g/cm3 (0 °C)
1.266 g/cm3 (25 °C)
|Melting point||−111.61 °C (−168.90 °F; 161.54 K)|
|Boiling point||46.24 °C (115.23 °F; 319.39 K)|
|2.58 g/L (0 °C)|
2.39 g/L (10 °C)
2.17 g/L (20 °C)
0.14 g/L (50 °C)
|Solubility||Soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, oil, CHCl3, CCl4|
|Solubility in formic acid||4.66 g/100 g|
|Solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide||45 g/100 g (20.3 °C)|
|Vapor pressure||48.1 kPa (25 °C)|
82.4 kPa (40 °C)
Refractive index (nD)
|Viscosity||0.436 cP (0 °C)|
0.363 cP (20 °C)
|0 D (20 °C)|
Heat capacity (C)
Std enthalpy of
Gibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||See: data page|
|GHS Signal word||Danger|
|H225, H315, H319, H361, H372|
|P210, P281, P305+351+338, P314|
|Inhalation hazard||Irritant; toxic|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||−43 °C (−45 °F; 230 K)|
|102 °C (216 °F; 375 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|3188 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
LC50 (median concentration)
|>1670 ppm (rat, 1 h)|
15500 ppm (rat, 1 h)
3000 ppm (rat, 4 h)
3500 ppm (rat, 4 h)
7911 ppm (rat, 2 h)
3165 ppm (mouse, 2 h)
LCLo (lowest published)
|4000 ppm (human, 30 min)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 20 ppm C 30 ppm 100 ppm (30-minute maximum peak)|
|TWA 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) ST 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) [skin]|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|Supplementary data page|
|Refractive index (n),|
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
|UV, IR, NMR, MS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Occurrence, manufacture, properties
- C + 2S → CS2
- 2 CH4 + S8 → 2 CS2 + 4 H2S
The reaction is analogous to the combustion of methane.
Global production/consumption of carbon disulfide is approximately one million tonnes, with China consuming 49%, followed by India at 13%, mostly for the production of rayon fiber. United States production in 2007 was 56,000 tonnes.
CS2 is highly flammable:
- CS2 + 3 O2 → CO2 + 2 SO2
It is isoelectronic with carbon dioxide but it is more reactive toward nucleophiles and more easily reduced. These differences in reactivity can be attributed to the weaker π donor-ability of the sulfido centers, which renders the carbon more electrophilic. Amines afford dithiocarbamates:
- 2 R2NH + CS2 → [R2NH2+][R2NCS2−]
- RONa + CS2 → [Na+][ROCS2−]
This reaction is the basis of the manufacture of regenerated cellulose, the main ingredient of viscose, rayon and cellophane. Both xanthates and the related thioxanthates (derived from treatment of CS2 with sodium thiolates) are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.
Sodium sulfide affords trithiocarbonate:
- Na2S + CS2 → [Na+]2[CS32−]
Carbon disulfide does not hydrolyze readily, although the process is catalyzed by an enzyme carbon disulfide hydrolase.
- 4 Na + 4 CS2 → Na2C3S5 + Na2CS3
This conversion proceeds via the intermediacy of thiophosgene, CSCl2.
CS2 polymerizes upon photolysis or under high pressure to give an insoluble material called "Bridgman's black", named after the discoverer of the polymer, Percy Williams Bridgman. Trithiocarbonate (-S-C(S)-S-) linkages comprise, in part, the backbone of the polymer, which is a semiconductor.
It is also a valued intermediate in chemical synthesis of carbon tetrachloride. It is widely used in the synthesis of organosulfur compounds such as metam sodium, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, which are used in extractive metallurgy and rubber chemistry.
It can be used in fumigation of airtight storage warehouses, airtight flat storages, bins, grain elevators, railroad box cars, shipholds, barges and cereal mills. Carbon disulfide is also used as an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, nursery stock, in fresh fruit conservation and as a soil disinfectant against insects and nematodes.
Carbon disulfide is highly toxic. It has been linked to both acute and chronic forms of poisoning. To identify the effects of carbon disulfide, it is necessary to confirm exposure, compatible signs and symptoms, and exclude other health conditions, as its effects are non-specific. Typical recommended TLV is 30 mg/m3, 10 ppm. Symptoms include tingling or numbness, "cramps, muscle weakness, pain, distal sensory loss, and neurophysiological impairment".
- "Properties of substance: carbon disulfide". chemister.ru.
- Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1952). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds. Van Nostrand.
- Carbon disulfide in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg (MD), http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-27).
- Sigma-Aldrich Co., Carbon disulfide. Retrieved on 2014-05-27.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0104". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- "Carbon disulfide". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils (ed.), Inorganic Chemistry, translated by Eagleson, Mary; Brewer, William, San Diego/Berlin: Academic Press/De Gruyter, ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
- "Carbon Disulfide report from IHS Chemical". Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- "Chemical profile: carbon disulfide from ICIS.com". Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- "Carbon Disulfide". Akzo Nobel.
- Park, Tae-Jin; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Hemraj-Benny, Tirandai; Wong, Stanislaus S. (2006). "Purification strategies and purity visualization techniques for single-walled carbon nanotubes". Journal of Materials Chemistry. 16 (2): 141–154. doi:10.1039/b510858f.
- "4,5-Dibenzoyl-1,3-dithiole-1-thione". Org. Synth. 73: 270. 1996. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.073.0270.
- Werner, Helmut (1982). "Novel Coordination Compounds formed from CS2 and Heteroallenes". Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 43: 165–185. doi:10.1016/S0010-8545(00)82095-0.
- Ochiai, Bungo; Endo, Takeshi. "Carbon dioxide and carbon disulfide as resources for functional polymers". Progress in Polymer Science. 30 (2): 183–215. doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2005.01.005.
- Lay, Manchiu D. S.; Sauerhoff, Mitchell W.; Saunders, Donald R.; "Carbon Disulfide", in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2000 doi: 10.1002/14356007.a05_185
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
- Worthing, Charles R.; Hance, Raymond J. (1991). The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium (9th ed.). British Crop Protection Council. ISBN 9780948404429.
- "Occupational health and safety – chemical exposure". www.sbu.se. Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU). Archived from the original on 2017-06-06. Retrieved 2017-06-07.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carbon disulfide.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Carbon Bisulphide.|
- Australian National Pollutant Inventory: Carbon disulfide
- CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Carbon Disulfide
- Inno Motion Engineering
- Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry Public Health Statement for Carbon Disulfide, 1996.
- Resources on Carbon Disulfide by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health