bell hooks

Gloria Jean Watkins (born September 25, 1952), better known by her pen name bell hooks,[1] is an American author, professor, feminist, and social activist. The name "bell hooks" is borrowed from her maternal great-grandmother, Bell Blair Hooks.[2]

Gloria Watkins
Gloria Watkins in October 2014
Gloria Jean Watkins

(1952-09-25) September 25, 1952
OccupationAuthor, academic, feminist and social activist
Known forOppositional gaze
Notable work
  • Veodis Watkins
  • Rosa Bell Watkins

The focus of hooks' writing has been the intersectionality of race, capitalism, and gender, and what she describes as their ability to produce and perpetuate systems of oppression and class domination. She has published more than 30 books and numerous scholarly articles, appeared in documentary films, and participated in public lectures. She has addressed race, class, and gender in education, art, history, sexuality, mass media, and feminism.[3] In 2014, she founded the bell hooks Institute at Berea College in Berea, Kentucky.[4]


Early life

Hooks was born in Hopkinsville, a small, segregated town in Kentucky, to a working-class family.[5] Her father, Veodis Watkins, was a custodian and her mother, Rosa Bell Watkins, was a homemaker. She had five sisters and one brother. An avid reader, she was educated in racially segregated public schools, and wrote of great adversities when making the transition to an integrated school, where teachers and students were predominantly white. She later graduated from Hopkinsville High School in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. She obtained her BA in English from Stanford University in 1973, and her MA in English from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1976.[6]

In 1983, after several years of teaching and writing, she completed her doctorate in literature at the University of California, Santa Cruz, with a dissertation on author Toni Morrison.


Hooks' teaching career began in 1976 as an English professor and senior lecturer in Ethnic Studies at the University of Southern California.[7] During her three years there, Golemics, a Los Angeles publisher, released her first published work, a chapbook of poems titled And There We Wept (1978), written under the name "bell hooks". She adopted her maternal great-grandmother's name as a pen name because her great-grandmother "was known for her snappy and bold tongue, which [she] greatly admired". She put the name in lowercase letters "to distinguish [herself from] her great-grandmother." She said that her unconventional lowercasing of her name signifies what is most important is her works: the "substance of books, not who I am."[8]

She taught at several post-secondary institutions in the early 1980s and 1990s, including the University of California, Santa Cruz, San Francisco State University, Yale, Oberlin College and City College of New York.[9] In 1981 South End Press published her first major work, Ain't I a Woman?: Black Women and Feminism, though it was written years earlier while she was an undergraduate student.[10] In the decades since its publication, Ain't I a Woman? has gained widespread recognition as an influential contribution to feminist thought.[11]

Ain't I a Woman? examines several recurring themes in her later work: the historical impact of sexism and racism on black women, devaluation of black womanhood, media roles and portrayal, the education system, the idea of a white-supremacist-capitalist-patriarchy, the marginalization of black women, and the disregard for issues of race and class within feminism. Since the publication of Ain't I a Woman?, she has become eminent as a leftist and postmodern political thinker and cultural critic. She targets and appeals to a broad audience by presenting her work in a variety of media using various writing and speaking styles. As well as having written books, she has published in numerous scholarly and mainstream magazines, lectures at widely accessible venues, and appears in various documentaries.

She is frequently cited by feminists[12][13][14] as having provided the best solution to the difficulty of defining something as diverse as "feminism", addressing the problem that if feminism can mean everything, it means nothing. She asserts an answer to the question "what is feminism?" that she says is "rooted in neither fear nor fantasy... 'Feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation and oppression'".[15]

She has published more than 30 books, ranging in topics from black men, patriarchy, and masculinity to self-help, engaged pedagogy to personal memoirs, and sexuality (in regards to feminism and politics of aesthetic/visual culture). A prevalent theme in her most recent writing is the community and communion, the ability of loving communities to overcome race, class, and gender inequalities. In three conventional books and four children's books, she suggests that communication and literacy (the ability to read, write, and think critically) are crucial to developing healthy communities and relationships that are not marred by race, class, or gender inequalities.

She has held positions as Professor of African-American Studies and English at Yale University, Associate Professor of Women's Studies and American Literature at Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, and as Distinguished Lecturer of English Literature at the City College of New York.

In 2002, hooks gave a commencement speech at Southwestern University. Eschewing the congratulatory mode of traditional commencement speeches, she spoke against what she saw as government-sanctioned violence and oppression, and admonished students who she believed went along with such practices. This was followed by a controversy described in the Austin Chronicle after an "irate Arizonian"[16] had criticized the speech in a letter to the editor.[17] The newspaper reported that many in the audience booed the speech, though "several graduates passed over the provost to shake her hand or give her a hug".[16]

In 2004, she joined Berea College in Berea, Kentucky, as Distinguished Professor in Residence,[18] where she participated in a weekly feminist discussion group, "Monday Night Feminism"; a luncheon lecture series, "Peanut Butter and Gender"; and a seminar, "Building Beloved Community: The Practice of Impartial Love". Her 2008 book, belonging: a culture of place, includes a candid interview with author Wendell Berry as well as a discussion of her move back to Kentucky.[19] She has undertaken three scholar-in-residences at The New School. Mostly recently she did one for a week in October 2014. She engaged in public dialogues with Gloria Steinem,[20] Laverne Cox,[21] and Cornel West.


Those who have influenced hooks include African-American abolitionist and feminist Sojourner Truth (whose speech Ain't I a Woman? inspired her first major work), Brazilian educator Paulo Freire (whose perspectives on education she embraces in her theory of engaged pedagogy), Peruvian theologian and Dominican priest Gustavo Gutiérrez, psychologist Erich Fromm, playwright Lorraine Hansberry, Buddhist monk Thich Nhat Hanh, African-American writer James Baldwin, Guyanese historian Walter Rodney, African-American black nationalist leader Malcolm X, and African-American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. (who addresses how the strength of love unites communities).[22][23] Hooks says of Martin Luther King Jr.'s notion of a beloved community, "He had a profound awareness that the people involved in oppressive institutions will not change from the logics and practices of domination without engagement with those who are striving for a better way."[24]

Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom

In her 1994 book Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom, hooks writes about a transgressive approach in education where educators can teach students to "transgress" against racial, sexual, and class boundaries in order to achieve the gift of freedom. To educate as the practice of freedom, bell hooks describes it as "a way of teaching that anyone can learn."[25] Hooks combines her practical knowledge and personal experiences of the classroom with feminist thinking and critical pedagogy. Hooks investigates the classroom as a source of constraint but also a potential source of liberation. She argues that teachers' use of control and power over students dulls the students' enthusiasm and teaches obedience to authority, "confin[ing] each pupil to a rote, assembly-line approach to learning."[26] She advocates that universities should encourage students and teachers to transgress, and seeks ways to use collaboration to make learning more relaxing and exciting. She describes teaching as a performative act and teachers as catalysts that invite everyone to become more engaged and activated. Performative aspect of learning "offers the space for change, invention, spontaneous shifts, that can serve as a catalyst drawing out the unique elements in each classroom."[25] Hooks also dedicated a chapter of the book to Paulo Freire, written in a form of a playful dialogue between herself, Gloria Watkins and her writing voice, bell hooks.[27] In the last chapter of the book, hooks raised the critical question of eros or the erotic in classrooms environment. According to hooks, eros and the erotics do not need to be denied for learning to take place. She argues that one of the central tenets of feminist pedagogy has been to subvert the mind-body dualism and allow oneself as a teacher to be whole in the classroom, and as a consequence wholehearted.[28]

Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope

In 2004, 10 years after the success of Teaching to Transgress, bell hooks published Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope. In this book, hooks offers advice about how to continue to make the classroom a place that is life-sustaining and mind expanding, a place of liberating mutuality where teacher and student together work in partnership.[29] She writes that education as a practice of freedom enable us to confront feelings of loss and restore our sense of connections and consequently teaches us how to create community.[29] She locates hope in places of struggle where she witnessed individuals positively transforming their lives and the world around them. For hooks, educating is always a vocation rooted in hopefulness.[29]

Feminist Theory

Noting a lack of diverse voices in popular feminist theory, hooks published Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center in 1984. In this book, she argues that those voices have been marginalized, and states: "To be in the margin is to be part of the whole but outside the main body."[30] She argues that if feminism seeks to make women equal to men, then it is impossible because in Western society, not all men are equal. She claims, "Women in lower class and poor groups, particularly those who are non-white, would not have defined women's liberation as women gaining social equality with men since they are continually reminded in their everyday lives that all women do not share a common social status."[31]

She used the work as a platform to offer a new, more inclusive feminist theory. Her theory encouraged the long-standing idea of sisterhood but advocated for women to acknowledge their differences while still accepting each other. Hooks challenged feminists to consider gender's relation to race, class, and sex, a concept which came to be known as intersectionality. She also argues for the importance of male involvement in the equality movement, stating that for change to occur, men must do their part. Hooks also calls for a restructuring of the cultural framework of power, one that does not find oppression of others necessary.[32]

Part of this restructuring involves allowing men into the feminist movement, so that there is not a separationist ideology, so much as an incorporating camaraderie. Additionally, she shows great appreciation for the movement away from feminist thought as led by bourgeois white women, and towards a multidimensional gathering of both genders to fight for the raising up of women. This shifts the original focus of feminism away from victimization, towards harboring understanding, appreciation, and tolerance for all genders and sexes so that all are in control of their own destinies, uncontrolled by patriarchal, capitalist tyrants.[33]

Another part of restructuring the movement comes from education: hooks points out that there is an anti-intellectual stigma among the masses. Poor people do not want to hear from intellectuals because they are different and have different ideas. As she points out, this stigma against intellectuals leads to the shunning of poor people who have risen up to graduation from post-secondary education, because they are no longer like the rest of the masses. In order for us to achieve equality, people must be able to learn from those who have been able to smash these stereotypes. This separation leads to further inequality and in order for the feminist movement to succeed, they must be able to bridge the education gap and relate to those in the lower end of the economic sphere. If they are able to do this, then there will be more success and less inequality.

In "Rethinking The Nature of Work", hooks goes beyond discussing work and raises a pertinent question that feminists may need to ask themselves. "Many Women active in feminist movement do not have radical political perspectives and are unwilling to face these realities, especially when they, as individuals, gain economic self-sufficiency within the existing structure."[34]

Media theory

In her book Reel to Real, hooks discusses the effect that movies have on any given individual, with specific emphasis on the black female spectator. She argues that, although we know that movies are not real life, "no matter how sophisticated our strategies of critique and intervention, [we] are usually seduced, at least for a time, by the images we see on the screen. They have power over us, and we have no power over them."[35]

Hooks focuses on problematic racial representations. Hooks has written a number of essays and articles, and in Reel to Real she describes her experiences growing up watching mainstream movies as well as engaging in the media. Hooks believes that to engage in film was to engage in the negation of black female representation in the media.[35] Hooks states, "Representation is the 'hot' issue right now because it's a major realm of power for any system of domination. We keep coming back to the question of representation because identity is always about representation".[35]

Film theory

Asserting that for her, the "gaze" had always been political, bell hooks explains how growing up she began to grow curious as to how much influence black parents were given as a result of black slaves being punished for looking at their white owners. She wondered how much had been absorbed and carried on through the generations to shift not only parenting, but spectatorship as well.[35] In what is described as an "oppositional gaze", hooks explains the sometimes overwhelming desire to look and thus stating that by looking, actually declares a defiantly, "Not only will I stare, I want my look to change reality."[35] The cinema became a place of critical analysis and a place where black men could view narratives starring white women without the risk of being lynched or murdered for being perceived as a threat.[35]


Her first book, Ain't I a Woman: Black Women in Feminism, led to some criticism of her being "ahistorical, unscholarly (there were many complaints about the absence of footnotes), and homophobic".[36] Hooks does not provide a bibliography for any of her work, making it difficult to find the editors and publication information for the pieces listed under the "notes" section of her work.[37] In "Theory as Liberatory Practice," hooks explains that her lack of conventional academic format was "motivated by the desire to be inclusive, to reach as many readers as possible in as many different locations as possible".[38]

In "Remembered Rapture: The Writer at Work; By bell hooks; Mother to Mother," Nicole Abraham criticizes hooks's unconventional format rationalization. Abraham suggests that, if her rationalization for not providing footnotes and bibliographic information in her writing is that it will help her reach a broader (presumably a less academic) audience, hooks either assumes the average person has "no real interest or knowledge about who really wrote what ideas and where we can look for more thoughts on similar subjects" or "she mean[s] that we are lazy readers who have not the sophistication to grapple with the complications of an endnote."[39]


  • Black Is... Black Ain't (1994)
  • Give a Damn Again (1995)
  • Cultural Criticism and Transformation (1997)
  • My Feminism (1997)
  • Voices of Power (1999)
  • BaadAsssss Cinema (2002)
  • I Am a Man: Black Masculinity in America (2004)
  • Writing About a Revolution: A Talk (2004)
  • Happy to Be Nappy and Other Stories of Me (2004)
  • Is Feminism Dead? (2004)
  • Fierce Light: When Spirit Meets Action (2008)
  • Occupy Love (2012)

Awards and nominations

  • Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics: The American Book Awards/ Before Columbus Foundation Award (1991)
  • Ain't I a Woman?: Black Women and Feminism: "One of the twenty most influential women's books in the last 20 years" by Publishers Weekly (1992)
  • bell hooks: The Writer's Award from the Lila Wallace–Reader's Digest Fund (1994)
  • Happy to Be Nappy: NAACP Image Award nominee (2001)
  • Homemade Love: The Bank Street College Children's Book of the Year (2002)
  • Salvation: Black People and Love: Hurston Wright Legacy Award nominee (2002)
  • bell hooks: Utne Reader's "100 Visionaries Who Could Change Your Life"
  • bell hooks: The Atlantic Monthly's "One of our nation's leading public intellectuals"

Select bibliography


  • hooks, bell (1978). And there we wept: poems. OCLC 6230231.
  • hooks, bell (1981). Ain't I a Woman?: Black women and feminism. ISBN 978-0-89608-129-1.
  • hooks, bell (1984). Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. ISBN 978-0-89608-613-5.
Throughout the book the author explores various manifestations of her central contentions - that early feminist theory and practice was limited in scope, and that true feminist movement has the potential to vastly improve the lives of men and women alike.

Children's books

  • Happy to be nappy. Chris Raschka (illustrator). 1999. ISBN 978-0-7868-2377-2.CS1 maint: others (link)
  • Homemade Love. New York: Hyperion Books for Children. 2002. ISBN 9780786825530.
  • Be boy buzz. New York: Hyperion Books for Children. 2002. ISBN 9780786816439.
  • Skin again. Chris Raschka (illustrator). New York: Hyperion Books for Children. 2004. ISBN 9780786808250.CS1 maint: others (link)
  • Grump groan growl. Chris Raschka (illustrator). New York: Hyperion Books for Children. 2008. ISBN 9780786808168.CS1 maint: others (link)

Book chapters

  • hooks, bell (1993), "Black women and feminism", in Richardson, Laurel; Taylor, Verta A. (eds.), Feminist frontiers III, New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 444–449, ISBN 9780075570011.
  • hooks, bell (1996), "Continued devaluation of Black womanhood", in Jackson, Stevi; Scott, Sue (eds.), Feminism and sexuality: a reader, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 216–223, ISBN 9780231107082.
  • hooks, bell (1997), "Sisterhood: political solidarity between women", in McClintock, Anne; Mufti, Aamir; Shohat, Ella (eds.), Dangerous liaisons: gender, nation, and postcolonial perspectives, Minnesota, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 396–414, ISBN 9780816626496.
  • hooks, bell (2004), "Selling hot pussy: representations of Black female sexuality in the cultural marketplace", in Richardson, Laurel; Taylor, Verta A.; Whittier, Nancy (eds.), Feminist frontiers (5th ed.), Boston: McGraw-Hill, pp. 119–127, ISBN 9780072824230. Pdf.
  • hooks, bell (2005), "Black women: shaping feminist theory", in Cudd, Ann E.; Andreasen, Robin O. (eds.), Feminist theory: a philosophical anthology, Oxford, UK; Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 60–68, ISBN 9781405116619.

See also

  • Biography portal


  • hooks, bell (1996). Reel to Real: Race, Sex, and Class at the Movies. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91824-4.
  1. Dinitia Smith (September 28, 2006). "Tough arbiter on the web has guidance for writers". The New York Times. p. E3. But the Chicago Manual says it is not all right to capitalize the name of the writer bell hooks because she insists that it be lower case.
  2. hooks, bell, "Inspired Eccentricity: Sarah and Gus Oldham" in Sharon Sloan Fiffer and Steve Fiffer (eds),Family: American Writers Remember Their Own, New York: Vintage Books, 1996, p. 152.
    hooks, bell, Talking Back, Routledge, 2014 [1989], p. 161.
  3. "Bell Hooks Biography - life, childhood, children, name, school, mother, young, book, information, born". Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  4. "About the bell hooks institute | bell hooks institute". bell hooks institute. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  5. "Bell Hooks Biography".
  6. Scanlon, Jennifer (1999). Significant Contemporary American Feminists: A Biographical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 125–132. ISBN 978-0313301254.
  7. Anderson, Gary L.; Anderson, Kathryn G (2007). hooks, bell (1952– ) (vol. 2 ed.). SAGE Reference. pp. 704–706.
  8. Heather Williams (March 26, 2013). "bell hooks Speaks Up". The Sandspur via Issuu.
  9. "bell hooks." Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2010. Literature Resource Center. Accessed June 12, 2018.
  10. Teaching to Transgress, p. 52.
  11. Google Scholar shows 894 citations of Ain't I a Woman (as of August 30, 2006).
  12. Adams, Lauren (February 7, 2012). "Book Review: Feminism is for Everybody by bell hooks". Underneath a Book. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
  13. "10 Years of "Feminism is for Everybody"". Ms. Magazine Blog. September 7, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
  14. "Feminism is for Everybody: Further Discussion". A Year of Feminist Classics. February 8, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
  15. bell hooks, Feminism is for Everybody: Passionate Politics, Pluto Press, 2000.
  16. Apple, Lauri (May 24, 2002). "bell hooks Digs In". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  17. "Postmarks - Southwestern Graduation Debacle". The Austin Chronicle. May 24, 2002. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  18. Archived May 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  19. Hooks, bell (January 1, 2009). Belonging: a culture of place. ISBN 9780415968157.
  20. Vagianos, Alanna (October 7, 2014). "Gloria Steinem On The Great Part Of Feminism: 'We Have Each Other's Backs'". Retrieved October 11, 2014.
  21. Scherker, Amanda (October 10, 2014). "Laverne Cox And bell hooks Talk How To Survive The Patriarchy". Retrieved October 11, 2014.
  22. Notes on IAPL 2001 Keynote Speaker, bell hooks Archived January 31, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  23. Building a Community of Love, bell hooks & Thich Nhat Hanh
  24. Brosi, George; Hooks, Bell (January 1, 2012). "The Beloved Community: A Conversation between bell hooks and George Brosi". Appalachian Heritage. 40 (4): 76–86. doi:10.1353/aph.2012.0109. ISSN 1940-5081.
  25. 1952-, hooks, bell (March 18, 2014). Teaching to transgress : education as the practice of freedom. New York. p. 11. ISBN 9781135200015. OCLC 877868009.
  26. hooks, Teaching to Transgress, p. 12.
  27. 1952-, hooks, bell, (1994). Teaching to transgress : education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge. pp. 45–59. ISBN 978-0415908085. OCLC 30668295.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  28. hooks (1994). Teaching to transgress. New York: Routledge. p. 193.
  29. hooks, bell (2003). Teaching community : a pedagogy of hope. Abingdon, England: Routledge. pp. XV. ISBN 9781135457921. OCLC 846494699.
  30. hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center, p. xvi.
  31. hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center.
  32. hooks, p. 92.
  33. hooks, p. 74.
  34. hooks, bell (1984). Feminist Theory : From Margin to Center. London: Pluto Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-89608-614-2.
  35. hooks 1996.
  36. Bell-Scott, Patricia (1985). "The Centrality of Marginality". The Women's Review of Books. 2 (5): 3. doi:10.2307/4019632. JSTOR 4019632.
  37. Pettis, Joyce (1986). "A Review of Feminist Theory: From Margin To Center". Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 11 (4): 788–789. doi:10.1086/494279.
  38. Haley, Shelly (1995). "Practicing Freedom". The Women's Review of Books. 7 (6): 10–11.
  39. Abraham, Nicole (1999). "Remembered Rapture: The Writer at Work; by bell hooks; Mother to Mother; by Sindiwe Magona". Southern African Feminist Review. 3 (2): 101.
  40. "bell hooks". Loyal Jones Appalachian Center. This may be a working title. See talk page.

Further reading

  • hooks, bell; Trend, David (1996), "Representation and democracy an interview", in Trend, David (ed.), Radical democracy: identity, citizenship, and the state, New York: Routledge, pp. 228–236, ISBN 9780415912471
  • Florence, Namulundah (1998). bell hooks' Engaged Pedagogy. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. ISBN 978-0-89789-564-4. OCLC 38239473.
  • Leitch et al., eds. "bell hooks." The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2001. pp. 2475–2484. ISBN 0-393-97429-4
  • South End Press Collective, ed. (1998). "Critical Consciousness for Political Resistance". Talking About a Revolution. Cambridge: South End Press. pp. 39–52. ISBN 978-0-89608-587-9. OCLC 38566253.
  • Stanley, Sandra Kumamoto, ed. (1998). Other Sisterhoods: Literary Theory and U.S. Women of Color. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-02361-3. OCLC 36446785.
  • Wallace, Michele (1998). Black Popular Culture. New York: The New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-459-9. OCLC 40548914.
  • Whitson, Kathy J. (2004). Encyclopedia of Feminist Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32731-5. OCLC 54529420.

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