Austronesian alignment

Austronesian alignment, also known as the Philippine-type voice system or Austronesian focus system[1], is a typologically unusual kind of morphosyntactic alignment in which "one argument can be marked as having a special relationship to the verb"[2]. This special relationship manifests itself as a voice affix on the verb that corresponds to a noun within the same clause that is either marked for a particular grammatical case or found in a privileged structural position within the clause or both.

Austronesian alignment is best known from the languages of the Philippines, but is also found in Taiwan's Formosan languages, as well as in Borneo, Northern Sulawesi, and Madagascar, and has been reconstructed for the ancestral Proto-Austronesian language[3].

Terminology

The term Austronesian focus was widely used in early literature, but more scholars turn to the term voice recently because of the arguments against Austronesian focus.[4] On the other hand, Starosta argued that neither voice nor focus is correct and that it is a lexical derivation.[5]

Studies

A number of studies focused on the typological perspective of Austronesian voice system.[6][7]

Some explored the semantic or pragmatic properties of Austronesian voice system.[8][9]

Others contributed to the valence-changing morphology.[10]

Properties

Agreement with the semantic role of the subject

In languages that exhibit Austronesian alignment, the voice affix on the main verb within the clause marks agreement with "the semantic role of the [subject]"[11].

For example, the Actor Voice affix may agree only with agent nominal phrases. (The asterisk means that the sentence is ungrammatical for the intended meaning.)

Kapampangan
a.Actor Voice
S‹um›ulat ya=ng poesia ing lalaki king blackboard.
AV›will.write3SG.DIR=ACCpoemDIRboyOBLblackboard
"The boy will write a poem on the blackboard."
b.* Sumulat yang lalaki ing poesia king blackboard.
Intended: "The boy will write a poem on the blackboard."
(Grammatical for: "The poem will write a boy on the blackboard.")
c.* Sumulat yang poesia ing blackboard king lalaki.
Intended: "The boy will write a poem on the blackboard."
(Grammatical for: "The blackboard will write a poem on the boy.")
Tagalog
a.Actor Voice
B‹um›ili ng mangga sa palengke ang mama.
ASP.AT›buyINDmangoOBLmarketDIRman
"The man bought a mango at the market."
b.* Bumili ng mama sa palengke ang mangga.
Intended: "The man bought a mango at the market."
(Grammatical for: "The mango bought a man at the market.")
c.* Bumili ng mangga sa lalaki ang palengke.
Intended: "The man bought a mango at the market."
(Grammatical for: "The market bought a mango from the man.")

The sentences in (b) are ungrammatical because the patient nominal phrase is marked as the subject, even though the verb bears the Actor Voice infix. The sentences in (c) are ungrammatical because, instead of the agent nominal phrase, the location nominal phrase is marked as the subject.

The patient voice affix may agree only with patient nominal phrases.

Kapampangan
a.Patient Voice
I-sulat n=e ning lalaki ing poesia king blackboard.
PV-will.write3SG.ERG=3SG.DIRERGboyDIRpoemOBLblackboard
"The poem will be written by the boy on the blackboard."
b.* Isulat ne ning poesia ing lalaki king blackboard.
Intended: "The poem will be written by the boy on the blackboard."
(Grammatical for: "The boy will be written by the poem on the blackboard.")
c.* Isulat ne ning lalaki ing blackboard king poesia.
Intended: "The poem will be written by the boy on the blackboard."
(Grammatical for: "The blackboard will be written by the boy on the poem.")
Tagalog
a.Patient Voice
B‹in›ili- ng mama sa palengke ang mangga.
ASP›buy-PVINDmanOBLmarketDIRmango
"The mango was bought by the man at the market."
b.* Binili- ng mangga sa palengke ang mama.
Intended: "The mango was bought by the man at the market."
(Grammatical for: "The man was bought by the mango at the market.")
c.* Binili- ng mama sa mangga ang palengke.
Intended: "The mango was bought by the man at the market."
(Grammatical for: "The market was bought by the man at the mango.")

The sentences in (b) are ungrammatical because the agent nominal phrase is marked as the subject, even though the verb bears the patient voice affix. The sentences in (c) are ungrammatical because, instead of the patient nominal phrase, the location nominal phrase is marked as the subject.

The locative voice affix may agree only with location nominal phrases.

Kapampangan
a.Locative Voice
Pi-sulat-an n=e=ng poesia ning lalaki ing blackboard.
LV-will.write-LV3SG.ERG=3SG.DIR=ACCpoemERGboyDIRblackboard
"The blackboard will be written a poem on by the boy."
b.* Pisulatan neng poesia ning blackboard ing lalaki.
Intended: "The blackboard will be written a poem on by the boy."
(Grammatical for: "The boy will be written a poem on by the blackboard.")
c.* Pisulatan neng blackboard ning lalaki ing poesia.
Intended: "The blackboard will be written a poem on by the boy."
(Grammatical for: "The poem will be written a blackboard on by the boy.")
Tagalog
a.Locative Voice
B‹in›ilh-an ng mama ng mangga ang palengke.
ASP›buy-LVINDmanINDmangoDIRmarket
"The market was bought a mango at by the man."
b.* Binilhan ng palengke ng mangga ang mama.
Intended: "The market was bought a mango at by the man."
(Grammatical for: "The man was bought a mango from by the market.")
c.* Binilhan ng mama ng palengke ang mangga.
Intended: "The market was bought a mango at by the man."
(Grammatical for: "The mango was bought a market at by the man.")

The sentences in (b) are ungrammatical because the agent nominal phrase is marked as the subject, even though the verb bears the locative voice affix. The sentences in (c) are ungrammatical because, instead of the location nominal phrase, the patient nominal phrase is marked as the subject.

Types of semantic roles

Across languages, the most common semantic roles with which the voice affixes may agree are agent, patient, location, instrument, and benefactee. In some languages, the voice affixes may also agree with semantic roles such as theme, goal, reason, and time. The set of semantic roles that may be borne by subjects in each language varies, and some affixes can agree with more than one semantic role.

Promotion direct to subject

Languages that have Austronesian alignment do not have a process that promotes an oblique argument to direct object. Oblique arguments are promoted directly to subject.

Tagalog
1)Actor Voice
AGENTTHEMEGOAL
Nagpadala ang  mama ng pera sa anak niya.
M-n-pag-padala
AV-ASP-¿?-sendDIRmanINDmoneyOBLchild3SG.GEN
"The man sent money to his child."
2)Locative Voice
AGENTTHEMEGOAL
P‹in›adalh-an ng mama ng pera ang anak niya.
ASP›send-LVINDmanINDmoneyDIRchild3SG.GEN
"Hisi child was sent money by the mani."
3)(ungrammatical attempt to promote the indirect object to direct object)
AGENTTHEMEGOAL
* Nagpadalhan ang  mama ng pera ng anak niya.
* M-n-pag-padalh-an
* AV-ASP-¿?-send-LVDIRmanINDmoneyINDchild3SG.GEN
* Intended: "The man sent his child money."

In the Tagalog examples above, the goal nominal phrase can either be an indirect object, as in (1), or a subject as in (2). However, it cannot become a direct object, or be marked with indirect case, as in (3). Verb forms, such as "nagpadalhan", which bear both an Actor Voice affix and a non-Actor Voice affix, do not exist in languages that have Austronesian alignment.

The Tagalog examples contrast with the examples[12] from Indonesian below. Indonesian is a language that does not have Austronesian alignment.

Indonesian
4)Active Voice
AGENTTHEMEGOAL
Ayah mengirim uang kepada saya.
meN-kirim
fatherACTIVE VOICE-sendmoneyto1SG
"Father sent money to me."
5)Passive Voice with an Applicative Suffix
GOALTHEMEAGENT
Saya di-kirim-i uang oleh Ayah.
1SGPASSIVE VOICE-send-APPLICATIVEmoneybyfather
"I was sent money by Father."
6)Active Voice with an Applicative Suffix
AGENTGOALTHEME
Ayah mengirimi saya uang.
meN-kirim-i
fatherACTIVE VOICE-send-APPLICATIVE1SGmoney
"Father sent me money."

In the Indonesian examples, the goal nominal phrase can be the indirect object, as in (4), and the subject, as in (5). However, unlike in Tagalog, which has Austronesian alignment, the goal nominal phrase in Indonesian can be a direct object, as in (6). The preposition kepada disappears in the presence of the applicative suffix -i, and the goal nominal phrase moves from sentence-final position to some verb-adjacent position. In addition, they can behave like regular direct objects and undergo processes such as passivisation, as in (5).

Examples

Proto-Austronesian

The examples [lower-alpha 1] below are in Proto-Austronesian. Asterisks indicate a linguistic reconstruction. The voice affix on the verb appears in red text, while the subject, which the affix selects, appears in underlined bold italics. Four voices have been reconstructed for Proto-Austronesian: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice and Instrument Voice.

Proto-Austronesian

(1)Actor Voice
* K‹um›aen Semay Cau.
*AV›eatriceman
*"The man is eating some rice."
(2)Patient Voice
* Kaen-en nu Cau Semay.
* eat-PVERGmanrice
* "A/the man is eating the rice."
* (or "The rice is being eaten by a/the man.")
(3)Locative Voice
* Kaen-an nu Cau Semay Rumaq.
* eat-LVERGmanricehouse
* "The man is eating rice in the house."
* (or "The house is being eaten rice in by the man.")
(4)Instrument Voice
* Si-kaen nu Cau Semay lima-ni-á.
* IV-eatERGmanricehand-GEN-3SG
* "The man is eating rice with his hand."
* (or "Hisi hand is being eaten rice with by the mani.")

Below are examples of modern Austronesian languages that exhibit Austronesian alignment. These languages are spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Madagascar.

The number of voices differs from language to language. While the majority sampled have four voices, it is possible to have as few as three voices, and as many as six voices.

In the examples below, the voice affix on the verb appears in red text, while the subject, which the affix selects, appears in underlined bold italics.

Formosan

The data below come from Formosan, a geographic grouping of all Austronesian languages that belong outside of Malayo-Polynesian. The Formosan languages are primarily spoken in Taiwan.

Amis

Amis[lower-alpha 2] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Instrument Voice.

The direct case marker, which marks the subject in Amis, is ku.

(1)Actor Voice
Mi-ʔaɬup ku kapah tu vavuy.
AV-huntDIRyoung manACCpig
"A young man hunts a pig."
(2)Patient Voice
Ma-ʔaɬup nu kapah  ku vavuy.
PV-huntERGyoung manDIRpig
"A young man hunts a pig."
(or "A pig is hunted by a young man.)
(3)Locative Voice
Pi-ʔaɬup-an nu kapah kura lutuk tu vavuy.
LV-hunt-LVERGyoung manthat.DIRmountainACCpig
"A young man hunts a pig on that mountain."
(or "That mountain is hunted a pig on by a young man.")
(4)Instrument Voice
Sa-pi-ʔaɬup nu kapah ku ʔiluc tu vavuy.
IV-huntERGyoung manDIRspearACCpig
"A young man hunts a pig with a spear."
(or "A spear is hunted a pig with by a young man.")

Atayal

While they both have the same number of voices, the two dialects of Atayal presented below do differ in the shape of the circumstantial voice prefix. In Mayrinax, the circumstantial voice prefix is si-, whereas in Squliq, it is s-.

Mayrinax

Mayrinax[lower-alpha 3] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial Voice prefix selects for benefactee and instrument subjects.

The direct case morpheme in Mayrinax is kuʔ.

(1)Actor Voice
M-aras cuʔ qusiaʔ kuʔ makurakis.
AV-fetchACCwaterDIRgirl
"The girl fetches water."
(2)Patient Voice
Ras-un nkuʔ makurakis kuʔ qusiaʔ.
fetch-PVERGgirlDIRwater
"The girl fetches water."
(or "Water is fetched by the girl.")
(3)Locative Voice
Ras-an nkuʔ makurakis cuʔ qusiaʔ kuʔ βintaŋ ka hani.
fetch-LVERGgirlACCwaterDIRwater bucketLIGthis
"The girl fetches water in this water bucket."
(or "This water bucket is fetched water in by the girl.")
(4)a.Circumstantial Voice (with beneficiary subject)
Si-ʔaras nkuʔ makurakis cuʔ qusiaʔ kuʔ mamaliku=niaʔ.
CV-fetchERGgirlACCwaterDIRhusband=3SG.GEN
"The girl fetches water for her husband."
(or "Her husbandi is fetched water for by the girli.")
(4)b.Circumstantial Voice (with instrument subject)
Si-ʔaras nkuʔ makurakis cuʔ qusiaʔ kuʔ βintaŋ ka hani.
CV-fetchERGgirlACCwaterDIRwater bucketLIGthis
"The girl fetches water with this water bucket."
(or "This water bucket is fetched water with by the girl.")
Squliq

Squliq[13] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice prefix selects for benefactee and instrument subjects.

The direct case morpheme in Squliq is qu’.

(1)Actor Voice
M-aniq qulih qu’ Tali’.
AV-eatfishDIRTali
"Tali eats fish."
(2)Patient Voice
Niq-un na’ Tali’ qu’ qulih qasa.
eat-PVERGTaliDIRfishthat
"Tali eats that fish."
(or "That fish is eaten by Tali.")
(3)Locative Voice
Niq-an na’ Tali’ qulih qu’ ngasal qasa.
eat-LVERGTalifishDIRhousethat
"Tali eats fish in that house."
(or "That house is eaten fish in by Tali.")
(4)a.Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
S-qaniq na’ Tali’ qulih qu’ Sayun.
CV-eatERGTalifishDIRSayun
"Tali eats fish for Sayun."
(or "Sayun is eaten fish for by Tali.")
(4)b.Circumstantial Voice (with instrument subject)
S-qaniq na’ Tali’ qulih qu’ qway.
CV-eatERGTalifishDIRchopsticks
"Tali eats fish with chopsticks."
(or "Chopsticks are eaten fish with by Tali.")

Hla’alua

Hla’alua[14][15] has three voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice suffix selects for location and theme subjects.

While bound pronouns have a direct case form, nouns do not bear a special direct case marker for subjects in Hla’alua.

(1)Actor Voice
Hli-um-u=cu=aku hlavate usua.
ASP-AV-eat=ASP=1SG.DIRguavatwo
"I have eaten two guavas."
(2)Patient Voice
Hli-paipekel-a=cu a Eleke a tangusuhlu=na.
ASP-mould-PV=ASPDETElekeDETrice.cake=DEF
"Eleke has moulded the rice cake."
(or "The rice cake has been moulded by Eleke.")
(3)a. Circumstantial Voice (with location subject)
Hli-aala-ana ’Angai vutukuhlu a hluuhlungu=na.
ASP-take-CV’AngaifishDETstream=DEF
"’Angai has caught fish in the stream."
(or "The stream has been caught fish in by ’Angai.")
(3)b. Circumstantial Voice (with theme subject)
Hli-aala-ana=ku a vahlituku-isa ama’a.
ASP-take-CV=1SG.ERGDETmoney-3father
"I have taken father's money."
(or "Father's money has been taken by me.")

Kanakanavu

Kanakanavu[16] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Instrument Voice.

The direct case morpheme, which optionally marks the subject in Kanakanavu, is sua.

(1)Actor Voice
K‹um›aʉn (sua) ŋiau tapianaŋai.
AV›eatDIRcatbird
"A cat ate a bird."
(2)Patient Voice
Cʉʔʉr-ai maanu iisi (sua) tacau iisa.
see-PVchildthisDIRdogthat
"This child saw that dog."
(or "That dog was seen by this child.")
(3)Locative Voice
Riucuucu-an Mu'u (sua) PaicU.
kiss-LVMu'uDIRPaicU
"Mu'u kissed PaicU."
(or "PaicU was kissed by Mu'u.")
(4)Instrument Voice
Si-puʔa maanu-maku ʔʉnai sua vantuku iisi.
IV-buychild-1SG.GENlandDIRmoneythis
"My child bought land with this money."
(or "This money was bought land with by my child.")

Kavalan

Kavalan[17] has three voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice prefix selects for instrument and benefactee subjects.

The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in Kavalan, is ya.

(1)Actor Voice
Q‹em›al tu rasung ya sunis.
AV›digACCwellDIRchild
"The child dug a well."
(2)Patient Voice
Qal-an na sunis ya rasung.
dig-PVERGchildDIRwell
"The child dug the well."
(or The well was dug by the child.")
(3)a. Circumstantial Voice (with instrument subject)
Ti-tangan=ku tu ineb ya suqsuq.
CV-open=1SG.ERGACCdoorDIRkey
"I opened the door with the key."
(or "The key was opened the door with by me.")
(3)b. Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Ti-sammay na tama=ku ya tina=ku.
CV-cookERGfather=1SG.GENDIRmother-1SG.GEN
"My father cooked for my mother."
(or "My mother was cooked for by my father.")

Paiwan

Paiwan[18] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Instrument Voice.

The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in Paiwan, is a.

(1)Actor Voice
Q‹m›ałup a tsautsau tua vavuy i (tua) gadu tua vuluq.
AV›huntDIRmanOBLpigPREP(OBL)mountainOBLspear
"The man hunts the pigs in the mountains with a spear."
(2)Patient Voice
Qałup-en nua tsautsau a vavuy i (tua) gadu tua vuluq.
hunt-PVERGmanDIRpigPREP(OBL)mountainOBLspear
"The man hunts the pigs in the mountains with a spear."
(or "The pigs are hunted by the man in the mountains with a spear.")
(3) Locative Voice
Qałup-an nua tsautsau tua vavuy a gadu tua vuluq.
hunt-LVERGmanOBLpigDIRmountainOBLspear
"The man hunts the pigs in the mountains with a spear."
(or "The mountains are hunted the pigs in by the man with a spear.")
(4)Instrument Voice
Si-qałup nua tsautsau tua vavuy i (tua) gadu a vuluq.
IV-huntERGmanOBLpigPREP(OBL)mountainDIRspear
"The man hunts the pigs in the mountains with a spear."
(or "The spear is hunted the pigs with by the man in the mountains.")

Pazeh

Pazeh[19], which became extinct in 2010, had four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Instrument Voice.

The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in Pazeh, is ki.

(1)Actor Voice
Mu-ngazip yaku ki wazu.
AV-bite1SGDIRdog
"The dog bit me."
(2)Patient Voice
Ngazib-en wazu lia ki rakihan.
bite-PVdogASPDIRchild
"A dog bit the child."
(or The child was bitten by a dog.")
(3)Locative Voice
Pu-batu’-an lia ki babaw daran.
pave-stone-LVASPDIRsurfaceroad
"The road surface was paved with stones."
(4)Instrument Voice
Saa-talek alaw ki bulayan.
IV-cookfishDIRpan
"The pan was cooked fish with."

Puyuma

Puyuma[20] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice suffix selects for benefactee and instrument subjects.

The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in Puyuma, is na or i.

(1)Actor Voice
Tr‹em›akaw dra paisu i Isaw.
AT.RL›stealACCmoneyDIRIsaw
"Isaw stole money."
(2)Patient Voice
Tu=trakaw-aw na paisu kan Isaw.
3.ERG=steal-PT.RLDIRmoneyERGIsaw
"Isaw stole the money."
(or "The money was stolen by Isaw.")
(3)Locative Voice
Tu=trakaw-ay=ku dra paisu kan Isaw.
3.ERG=steal-LT.RL=1SG.DIRACCmoneyERGIsaw
"Isaw stole money from me."
(or "I was stolen money from by Isaw.")
(4)a. Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Tu=trakaw-anay i tinataw dra paisu.
3.ERG=steal-CT.RLDIRhis.motherACCmoney
"He stole money for his mother."
(or "Hisi mother was stolen money for by himi.")
(4)b. Circumstantial Voice (with instrument subject)[21]
Ku=dirus-anay na enay kan Aliwaki.
1SG.ERG=wash-CT.RLDIRwaterACCAliwaki
"I washed Aliwaki with water."
(or "The water was washed Aliwaki with by me.")

Seediq

The two dialects of Seediq presented below each have a different number of voices. The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in both dialects, is ka.

Tgdaya

Tgdaya[22] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice and Instrument Voice.

(1)Actor Voice
S‹em›ebuc ricah ka Pawan.
AV›hitplumDIRPawan
"Pawan is hitting plums."
(2)Patient Voice
Sebet-un na Pawan karicah.
hit-PVERGPawanDIRplum
"Pawan is hitting the plum."
(or "The plum is being hit by Pawan.")
(3)Locative Voice
Sebet-an na Pawan ricah ka peepah.
hit-LVERGPawanplumDIRfarm.field
"Pawan is hitting plums in the farm field."
(or "The farm field is being hit plums in by Pawan.")
(4)Instrument Voice
Se-sebuc na Pawan ricah ka butakan.
IV-hitERGPawanplumDIRstick
"Pawan is hitting plums with the stick."
(or "The stick is being hit plums with by Pawan.")
Truku

Truku[23] has three voices: Actor Voice, Goal Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The goal voice suffix selects for patient and location subjects. The circumstantial voice prefix selects for benefactee and instrument subjects.

(1)Actor Voice
K‹em›erut babuy ka Masaw.
AV›cutpigDIRMasaw
"Masaw slaughters a/the pig."
(2)a.Goal Voice (with patient subject)
Keret-an Masaw ka babuy.
cut-GTMasawDIRpig
"Masaw slaughters the pig."
(or "The pig is slaughtered by Masaw.")
(2)b.Goal Voice (with location subject)
Keret-an laqi sagas ka keti’inuh ni’i.
cut-GTchildwatermelonDIRboardthis
"The child cuts watermelon on this board."
(or "This board is cut watermelon on by the child.")
(3)a.Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Se-kerut babuy Masaw ka baki.
CV-cutpigMasawDIRold.man
"Masaw slaughters a/the pig for the old man."
(or "The old man is slaughtered a/the pig for by Masaw.")
(3)b.Circumstantial Voice (with instrument subject)
Se-kerut babuy Masaw ka puting.
CV-cutpigMasawDIRknife
"Masaw slaughters a/the pig with the knife."
(or "The knife is slaughtered a/the pig with by Masaw.")

Tsou

Tsou[24] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Benefactive Voice. In addition to the voice morphology on the main verb, auxiliary verbs in Tsou, which are obligatory in the sentence[25], are also marked for voice. However, auxiliaries only differentiate between Actor Voice and non-Actor Voice[26] (in green text).

The direct case morpheme, which marks subjects in Tsou, is ’o.

(1)Actor Voice
Mi-’o mo-si to peisu ne Nookay.
AUX.AT-1SG.DIRAV-putOBLmoneyOBLNookay
"I deposit money in Nookay."
(2)Patient Voice
Os-’o si-a to panka ’o peisu.
AUX.NAT-1SG.ERGput-PVOBLtableDIRmoney
"I put the money on the/a table."
(or "The money was put on the/a table by me.")
(3)Locative Voice
Os-’o si-i to chumu ’o kopu.
AUX.NAT-1SG.ERGput-LVOBLwaterDIRcup
"I put water into the cup."
(or "The cup was put water into by me.")
(4)Benefactive Voice[27]
Os-’o si-i-neni to ocha ’o Pasuya.
AUX.NAT-1SG.ERGput-LT-BTOBLteaDIRPasuya
"I served tea for Pasuya."
(or "Pasuya was served tea for by me.")

Batanic

The data below come from the Batanic languages, a subgroup under Malayo-Polynesian. These languages are spoken on the islands found in the Luzon Strait, between Taiwan and the Philippines.

Ivatan

Ivatan[28][29] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice prefix selects for instrument and benefactee subjects.

The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in Ivatan, is qo.

(1)Actor Voice
Mangamoqmo qo tao so motdeh no boday do vahay.
m-pang-qamoqmo
AV-¿?-frightenDIRmanACCchildINDsnakeOBLhouse
"The man is frightening a child with a snake in the house."
(2)Patient Voice
Qamoqmo-hen no tao qo motdeh no boday do vahay.
frighten-PVINDmanDIRchildINDsnakeOBLhouse
"The man is frightening a child with a snake in the house."
(or "A child is being frightened with a snake in the house by the man.")
(3)Locative Voice[30]
Pangamoqmoan no tao so motdeh no boday qo vahay.
pang-qamoqmo-an
¿?-frighten-LVINDmanACCchildINDsnakeDIRhouse
"The man is frightening a child with a snake in the house."
(or "The house is being frightened a child in with a snake by the man.")
(4)a.Circumstantial Voice (with instrument subject)[31]
Qipangamoqmo no tao so motdeh qo boday do vahay.
qi-pang-qamoqmo
CV-¿?-frightenINDmanACCchildDIRsnakeOBLhouse
"The man is frightening a child with a snake in the house."
(or "The snake is being frightened a child with in the house by the man.")
(4)b.Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)[32]
Qipangamoqmo no tao so motdeh no boday do vahay qo kayvan-a.
qi-pang-qamoqmo
CV-¿?-frightenINDmanACCchildINDsnakeOBLhouseDIRfriend-3SG.GEN
"The man is frightening a child with a snake in the house for his friend."
(or "Hisi friend is being frightened a child for with a snake in the house by the mani.")

Yami

Yami[33] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Instrument Voice.

The direct case morpheme, which marks subjects in Yami, is si for proper names, and o for common nouns.

(1)Actor Voice
K‹om›an so wakay si Salang.
AV›eatOBLsweet potatoDIRSalang
"Salang ate a sweet potato."
(2)Patient Voice
Kan-en na ni Salang o wakay.
eat-PV3SG.ERGERGSalangDIRsweet potato
"Salang ate the sweet potato."
(or "The sweet potato was eaten by Salang.")
(3)Locative Voice
Ni-akan-an na o mogis ori ni Salang.
ASP-eat-LV3SG.ERGDIRricethatERGSalang
"Salang ate from some of that rice."
(or "Some of that rice was eaten from by Salang.")
(4)Instrument Voice
I-akan na ni Salang o among ya.
IV-eat3SG.ERGERGSalangDIRfishthis
"Salang ate (a meal) with this fish."
(or "This fish was eaten (a meal) with by Salang.")

Philippine

The data below come from Philippine languages, a subgroup under Malayo-Polynesian, predominantly spoken across the Philippines, with some found on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia.

Blaan

Blaan[34][35][36] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Instrument Voice, and Non-Actor Voice.

The non-Actor Voice affix selects for patient and location subjects, depending on the inherent voice of the verb.

Agent Prefocus Base[37]Patient Prefocus Base[38]Instrument Prefocus Base[39]
(1)Actor Voice (intransitive)(1)Actor Voice(1)Actor Voice
Stifun ale.           M-bat agu bula.         K‹am›langagukayu.
assemble3PL.DIR           AV-throw1SG.DIRballAV›cut1SG.DIRtree
"They assemble.""I throw the ball.""I cut the tree."
(2)Actor Voice (transitive)(2)Patient Voice (with patient subject)(2)Non-Actor Voice (with patient subject)
S‹am›tifun ale dad to.       Bat=gu bula.         K‹an›lang=gukayu.
AV›assemble3PL.DIRPLpersonthrow=1SG.ERGballNAT›cut=1SG.ERGtree
"They assemble the people.""I throw the ball""I cut the tree."
"They assemble the people"(or "The ball is thrown by me.")(or "The tree is cut by me.")
(3)Non-Actor Voice (with patient subject)(3)Non-Actor Voice (with location subject)(3)Instrument Voice
S‹an›tifun=ladadto.N-bat=gu bula diding.       Klang=gukayufalakol.
NAT›assemble=3PL.ERGPLpersonNAT-throw=1SG.ERGballwallcut=1SG.ERGtreehatchet
"They assemble the people.""I throw the ball at the wall.""I cut the tree with the hatchet."
(or "The people are assembled by them.")(or "The wall is thrown the ball at by me.")(or "The hatchet is cut the tree with by me.")

Cebuano

Cebuano[40] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Circumstantial Voice, and Instrument Voice.

The circumstantial voice suffix selects for location, benefactee and goal subjects.

The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in Cebuano, is ang or si.

(1)Actor Voice
Mo-luto’ si Maria ug kalamay para kang Pedro.
AV-cookDIRMariaACCtype.of.dessertforOBLPedro
"Maria will cook kalamay for Pedro."
(2)Patient Voice
Luto’-on sa babaye ang bugas sa lata.
cook-PVERGwomanDIRriceOBLcan
"The woman will cook the rice in the can."
(or "The rice will be cooked by the woman in the can.")
(3)a. Circumstantial Voice (with location subject)
Luto’-an sa babaye ang lata ug bugas.
cook-CVERGwomanDIRcanACCrice
"The woman will cook rice in the can."
(or "The can will be cooked rice in by the woman.")
(3) b. Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Luto’-an ni Maria si Pedro ug kalamay.
cook-CVERGMariaDIRPedroACCtype.of.dessert
"Maria will cook Pedro kalamay."
(or "Pedro will be cooked kalamay for by Maria.")
(3) c. Circumstantial Voice (with goal subject)
Sulat-an ni Inday si Perla ug sulat.
write-CVERGIndayDIRPerlaACCletter
"Inday will write Perla a letter."
(or "Perla will be written a letter to by Inday.")
(4)Instrument Voice
I-sulat ni Linda ang lapis ug sulat.
IV-writeERGLindaDIRpencilACCletter
"Linda will write a letter with the pencil."
(or "The pencil will be written a letter with by Linda.")

Kalagan

Kalagan[41] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Instrument Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice suffix selects for benefactee and location subjects.

The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in Kalagan, is ya. The direct case form of the first person, singular pronoun is aku, whereas the ergative case form is ku.

(1)Actor Voice
K‹um›amang aku sa tubig na lata kan Ma’ adti balkon na lunis.
AV›get1SG.DIROBLwaterPREPcanforDadonporchPREPMonday
"I will get the water with the can for Dad on the porch on Monday."
(2)Patient Voice
Kamang-in ku ya tubig na lata kan Ma’ adti balkon na lunis.
get-PV1SG.ERGDIRwaterPREPcanforDadonporchPREPMonday
"I will get the water with the can for Dad on the porch on Monday."
(or "The water will be gotten by me with the can for Dad on the porch on Monday.")
(3)Instrument Voice
Pag-kamang ku ya lata sa tubig kan Ma’ adti balkon na lunis.
IV-get1SG.ERGDIRcanOBLwaterforDadonporchPREPMonday
"I will get the water with the can for Dad on the porch on Monday."
(or "The can will be gotten the water with by me for Dad on the porch on Monday.")
(4)a. Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Kamang-an ku ya Ma’ sa tubig na lata adti balkon na lunis.
get-CV1SG.ERGDIRDadOBLwaterPREPcanonporchPREPMonday
"I will get the water with the can for Dad on the porch on Monday."
(or "Dad will be gotten the water for by me with the can on the porch on Monday.")
(4)b. Circumstantial Voice (with location subject)
Kamang-an ku ya balkon sa tubig na lata kan Ma’ na lunis.
get-CV1SG.ERGDIRporchOBLwaterPREPcanforDadPREPMonday
"I will get the water with the can for Dad on the porch on Monday."
(or "The porch will be gotten the water from by me with the can for Dad on Monday.")

Kapampangan

Kapampangan[42] has five voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Goal Voice, Locative Voice, and Cirumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice prefix selects for instrument and benefactee subjects.

The direct case morpheme in Kapampangan is ing, which marks singular subjects, and reng, which is for plural subjects. Non-subject agents are marked with ergative case, ning, while non-subject patients are marked with accusative case, -ng, which is cliticized onto the preceding word.[43]

(1)Actor Voice
S‹um›ulat yang poesia ing lalaki king pen king papil.
ya=ng
AV›will.write3SG.DIR=ACCpoemDIRboyOBLpenOBLpaper
"The boy will write a poem with a pen on the paper."
(2)Patient Voice
I-sulat ne ning lalaki ing poesia king mestra.
na+ya
PV-will.write3SG.ERG+3SG.DIRERGboyDIRpoemOBLteacher.F
"The boy will write the poem to the teacher."
(or "The poem will be written by boy to the teacher.")
(3)Goal Voice
Sulat-anan ne ning lalaki ing mestro.
na+ya
will.write-GT3SG.ERG+3SG.DIRERGboyDIRteacher.M
"The boy will write to the teacher."
(or "The teacher will be written to by the boy.")
(4)Locative Voice
Pi-sulat-an neng poesia ning lalaki ing blackboard.
na+ya=ng
LV-will.write-LV3SG.ERG+3SG.DIR=ACCpoemERGboyDIRblackboard
"The boy will write a poem on the blackboard."
(or "The blackboard will be written a poem on by the boy.")
(5)a. Circumstantial Voice (with instrument subject)
Panyulat neng poesia ning lalaki ing pen.
paN-sulatna+ya=ng
CV-will.write3SG.ERG+3SG.DIR=ACCpoemERGboyDIRpen
"The boy will write a poem with the pen."
(or "The pen will be written a poem with by the boy.")
(5)b. Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Pamasa nong libru ning babai reng anak.
paN-basana+la=ng
CV-will.read3SG.ERG+3PL.DIR=ACCbookERGwomanPL.DIRchild
"The woman will read a book for the children."
(or "The children will be read a book for by the woman.")

Limos Kalinga

Limos Kalinga[44] has five voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, Benefactive Voice and Instrument Voice.

Except for when the subject is the agent, the subject is found directly after the agent in the clause.

(1)Actor Voice
Nandalus si Malia=t danat palatu.
n-man-dalus
ASP-AV-washDIRMalia=OBLPLplate
"Malia washed some plates."
(2)Patient Voice[45]
Binayum din pagoy.
b‹in›ayu-=m
ASP›pound-PV=2SG.ERGDIRrice
"You pounded the rice."
(or "The rice was pounded by you.")
(3)Locative Voice
D‹in›alus-an ud Malia danat palatu.
ASP›wash-LVERGMaliaDIR.PLplate
"Malia washed the plates."
(or "The plates were washed by Malia.")
(4)Benefactive Voice
I-n-dalus-an ud Malia si ina=na=t nat palatu.
BT-ASP-wash-BTERGMaliaDIRmother=3SG.GEN=OBLSGplate
"Malia washed a plate for her mother."
(or "Heri mother was washed a plate for by Maliai.")
(5)Instrument Voice
I-n-dalus ud Malia nat sabun sinat palatu.
IV-ASP-washERGMaliaDIRsoapOBL.SGplate
"Malia washed a plate with the soap."
(or "The soap was washed a plate with by Malia.")

Maranao

Maranao[46] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Circumstantial Voice, and Instrument Voice.

The circumstantial suffix selects for benefactee and location subjects.

The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in Maranao, is so.

(1)Actor Voice
S‹om›ombali’ so mama’ sa karabao ko maior.
AV›butcherDIRmanOBLwater.buffaloPREPmayor
"The man will butcher water buffalo for the mayor."
(2)Patient Voice
Sombali’-in o mama’ so karabao.
butcher-PVERGmanDIRwater.buffalo
"The man will butcher the water buffalo."
(or "The water buffalo will be butchered by the man.")
(3)a. Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Sombali’-an o mama’ so maior sa karabao.
butcher-CVERGmanDIRmayorOBLwater.buffalo
"The man will butcher water buffalo for the mayor."
(or "The mayor will be butchered water buffalo for by the man.")
(3)b. Circumstantial Voice (with location subject)
Koaq-an o mama’ sa bolong so tinda.
get-CVERGmanOBLmedicineDIRstore
"The man will get the medicine at/from the store."
(or "The store will be gotten medicine at/from by the man.")
(4)Instrument Voice
I-sombali’ o mama’ so gelat ko karabao.
butcher-IVERGmanDIRknifePREPwater.buffalo
"The man will butcher the water buffalo with the knife."
(or "The knife will be butchered the water buffalo with by the man.")

Palawan

Palawan[47] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Instrument Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice suffix selects for benefactee and location subjects.

(1)Actor Voice
Mog›lamuʔ libun in ot lugow kot mosakit sot apuy.
ASP.AT›cookwomanthat.DIRINDcongeeforsick persononfire
"The woman will cook congee on the fire for the sick person."
(2)Patient Voice
La~lamuʔ-on ot libun lugow in kot mosakit sot apuy.
ASP~cook-PVINDwomancongeethat.DIRforsick persononfire
"The woman will cook the congee on the fire for the sick person."
(or "The congee will be cooked on the fire for the sick person by the woman.")
(3)Instrument Voice
I-la~lamuʔ ot libun lugow kot mosakit apuy in.
IV-ASP~cookINDwomancongeeforsick personfirethat.DIR
"The woman will cook congee with the fire for the sick person."
(or "The fire will be cooked congee with for the sick person by the woman.")
(4)a.Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
La~lamuʔ-an ot libun ot lugow sot apuy mosakit in.
ASP~cook-CVINDwomanINDcongeeonfiresick personthat.DIR
"The woman will cook congee on the fire for the sick person."
(or "The sick person will be cooked congee for on the fire by the woman.")
(4)b.Circumstantial Voice (with location subject)
La~lamuʔ-an ot libun ot lugow kot mosakit apuy in.
ASP~cook-CVINDwomanINDcongeeforsick personfirethat.DIR
"The woman will cook congee on the fire for the sick person."
(or "The fire will be cooked congee on for the sick person by the woman.")

Tagalog

Tagalog has six voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, Benefactive Voice, Instrument Voice, and Reason Voice.

The locative voice suffix selects for location and goal subjects. (In the examples below, the goal subject and the benefactee subject are the same noun phrase.)

The reason voice prefix can only be affixed to certain roots, the majority of which are for emotion verbs (e.g., galit "be angry", sindak "be shocked"). However, verb roots such as matay "die", sakit "get sick", and iyak "cry" may also be marked with the reason voice prefix.

The direct case morpheme, which marks subjects in Tagalog, is ang. The indirect case morpheme, ng /naŋ/, which is the conflation of the ergative and accusative cases seen in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, marks non-subject agents and non-subject patients.

(1)Actor Voice
B‹um›ili ng mangga sa palengke para sa ale sa pamamagitan ng pera ang mama.
ASP.AT›buyINDmangoOBLmarketforOBLwomanOBLmeansINDmoneyDIRman
"The man bought a mango at the market for the woman by means of money."
(2)Patient Voice[48]
B‹in›ili- ng mama sa palengke para sa ale sa pamamagitan ng pera ang mangga.
ASP›buy-PVINDmanOBLmarketforOBLwomanOBLmeansINDmoneyDIRmango
"The man bought the mango at the market for the woman by means of money."
(or "The mango was bought by the man at the market for the woman by means of money.")
(3)a.Locative Voice (with location subject)
B‹in›ilh-an ng mama ng mangga para sa ale sa pamamagitan ng pera ang palengke.
ASP›buy-LVINDmanINDmangoforOBLwomanOBLmeansINDmoneyDIRmarket
"The man bought a mango at the market for the woman by means of money."
(or "The market was bought a mango at by the man for the woman by means of money.")
(3)b.Locative Voice (with goal subject)
B‹in›ilh-an ng mama ng mangga sa palengke sa pamamagitan ng pera ang ale.
ASP›buy-LVINDmanINDmangoOBLmarketOBLmeansINDmoneyDIRwoman
"The man bought a mango at the market for the woman by means of money."
(or "The woman was bought a mango for by the man at the market by means of money.")
(4)Benefactive Voice
I-b‹in›ili ng mama ng mangga sa palengke sa pamamagitan ng pera ang ale.
BT-‹ASP›buyINDmanINDmangoOBLmarketOBLmeansINDmoneyDIRwoman
"The man bought a mango at the market for the woman by means of money."
(or "The woman was bought a mango for by the man at the market by means of money.")
(5)Instrument Voice
Ipinambili ng mama ng mangga sa palengke para sa ale ang pera.
Ip‹in›aN-bili
ASPIV-buyINDmanINDmangoOBLmarketforOBLwomanDIRmoney
"The man bought a mango at the market for the woman by means of money."
(or "The money was bought a mango with by the man at the market for the woman.")
(6)a.Reason Voice[49]
Ik‹in›a-iyak ng bata ang pag-kagat sa kaniya ng langgam.
ASPRV-cryINDchildDIRNMLZ-biteOBL3SG.OBLINDant
"The child cried because an/the ant bit him."
(or "An/the ant's biting of him was cried about by the child.")
(6)b.Actor Voice
Um›iyak ang bata dahil k‹in›agat- siya ng langgam.
ASP.AT›cryDIRchildbecauseASP›bite-PV3SG.DIRINDant
"The child cried because an/the ant bit him."
(or "The child cried because he was bitten by an/the ant.")

Tondano

Tondano[50] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Locative Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial Voice selects for instrument, benefactee, and theme subjects.

The subject is found in sentence-initial position, before the verb.

(1)Actor Voice
Si tuama k‹um›eoŋ roda wo n-tali waki pasar.
AN.SGmanAV›will.pullcartwithINAN-ropetomarket
"The man will pull the cart with the rope to the market."
(2)Patient Voice
Roda keoŋ-ən ni tuama wo n-tali waki pasar.
cartwill.pull-PVERG.AN.SGmanwithINAN-ropetomarket
"The man will pull the cart with the rope to the market."
(or "The cart will be pulled with rope to the market by the man.")
(3)Locative Voice
Pasar keoŋ-an ni tuama roda wo n-tali.
marketwill.pull-LVERG.AN.SGmancartwithINAN-rope
"The man will pull the cart with the rope to the market."
(or "The market will be pulled the cart to with the rope by the man.")
(4)a. Circumstantial Voice (with instrument subject)
Tali i-keoŋ ni tuama roda waki pasar.
ropeCV-will.pullERG.AN.SGmancarttomarket
"The man will pull the cart with the rope to the market."
(or "The rope will be pulled the cart with to the market by the man.")
(4)b.Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Se okiʔ i-lutuʔ ni mama seraʔ
AN.PLchildCV-will.cookERG.AN.SGmotherfish
"Mother will cook fish for the children."
(or "The children will be cooked fish for by mother.")
(4)c.Circumstantial Voice (with theme subject)
Ləloŋkotan i-wareŋ ni tuama waki wale.
ladderCV-will.returnERG.AN.SGmantohouse
"The man will return the ladder to the house."
(or "The ladder will be returned by the man to the house.")

Bornean

The data below come from Bornean languages, a geographic grouping under Malayo-Polynesian, mainly spoken on the island of Borneo, spanning administrative areas of Malaysia and Indonesia.

Bonggi

Bonggi[51][52] has four voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Instrumental Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice suffix selects for benefactee and goal subjects.

The subject is found in sentence-initial position, before the verb.

(1)Actor Voice
Sia imagi louk nyu.
in-N-bagi
3SG.DIRRL-AT-dividefish2PL.GEN
"He divided your fish."
(2)Patient Voice[53]
Louk nyu biagi nya.
b‹in›agi-
fish2PL.GENRL›divide-PV3SG.ERG
"He divided your fish."
(or "Your fish was divided by him.")
(3)Instrument Voice
Badiʔ ku pimagi nya louk nyu.
p‹in›əN-bagi
machete1SG.GENRLIV-divide3SG.ERGfish2PL.GEN
"He divided your fish with my machete."
(or "My machete was divided your fish with by him.")
(4)a.Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Ou bigiadn nya louk nyu.
b‹in›agi-adn
1SG.DIRRL›divide-CV3SG.ERGfish2PL.GEN
"He divided your fish for me."
(or "I was divided your fish for by him.")
(4)b.Circumstantial Voice (with goal subject)
Ou biniriadn nya siidn.
b‹in›ori-adn
1SG.DIRRL›give-CV3SG.ERGmoney
"He gave money to me."
(or "I was given money to by him.")

Kadazan Dusun

Kadazan Dusun[54] has three voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice and Benefactive Voice.

The direct case morpheme, which marks the subject in Kadazan Dusun, is i.

(1)Actor Voice
Mog-ovit i ama’ di tanak do buuk.
AV-bringDIRfatherINDchildACCbook
"Father is bringing the child a book."
(2)Patient Voice
Ovit-on di ama’ di tanak i buuk.
bring-PVINDfatherINDchildDIRbook
"Father is bringing the child the book."
(or "The book is being brought to the child by Father.")
(3)Benefactive Voice
Ovit-an di ama’ i tanak do buuk.
bring-BTINDfatherDIRchildACCbook
"Father is bringing the child a book."
(or "The child is being brought a book to by Father.")

Kelabit

Kelabit[55] has three voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice and Instrument Voice.

Unlike other languages presented here, Kelabit does not use case-marking or word-ordering strategies to indicate the subject of the clause[56]. However, certain syntactic processes, such as relativization, target the subject. Relativizing non-subjects results in ungrammatical sentences.[57]

(1)Actor Voice
La’ih sineh nenekul nubaq nedih ngen seduk.
in-N-tekul
manthatASP-AV-spoon.uprice3SG.GENwithspoon
"That man spooned his rice up with a spoon."
(2)Patient Voice[58]
Sikul la’ih sineh nubaq nedih ngen seduk.
t‹in›ekul-
ASP›spoon.up-PVmanthatrice3SG.GENwithspoon.
"That man spooned his rice up with a spoon."
(or "Hisi rice was spooned up with a spoon by that mani.")
(3)Instrument Voice
Seduk penenekul la’ih sineh nubaq nedih.
p<in>eN-tekul
spoon<ASP>IV-spoon.upmanthatrice3SG.GEN
"That man spooned his rice up with a spoon."
(or "A spoon was spooned hisi rice up with by that mani.")

Kimaragang

Kimaragang[59] has five voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Benefactive Voice, Instrument Voice and Locative Voice.

Only intransitive verbs can be marked with the locative voice suffix[60], which looks similar to the patient voice suffix[61].

The direct case marker, which marks the subject in Kimaragang, is it for definite nouns and ot for indefinite nouns.

(1)Actor Voice
Mangalapak oku do niyuw.
m-poN-lapak
AV-TR-split1SG.DIRIND.INDFcoconut
"I will split a coconut/some coconuts."
(2)Patient Voice
Lapak-on ku it niyuw.
split-PV1SG.INDDIR.DEFcoconut
"I will split the coconuts."
(or "The coconuts will be split by me.")
(3)Benefactive Voice
Lapak-an ku do niyuw it wogok.
split-BT1SG.INDIND.INDFcoconutDIR.DEFpig
"I will split some coconuts for the pigs."
(or "The pigs will be split some coconuts for by me.")
(4)Instrument Voice[62][63]
Tongo ot pangalapak nu dilo’ niyuw ______?
-poN-lapak
whatDIR.INDFIT-TR-split2SG.INDthat.INDcoconutDIR
"What will you split those coconuts with?"
(or "The thing that will be split those coconuts with by you is what?")
(5)Locative Voice[64]
Siombo ot ogom-on ku _____?
whereDIR.INDFsit-LV1SG.INDDIR
"Where shall I sit?"
(or "The thing that will be sat upon by me is where?")

Timugon Murut

Timugon Murut[65] has five voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, Benefactive Voice, Instrument Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

There is no direct case marker to mark subjects in Timugon Murut. However, non-subject agents are marked with the ergative case marker, du, while non-subject non-agents are marked with the oblique case marker, da.

(1)Actor Voice
Mambali dŭanduʔ=ti da=konoon da=dalaiŋ=no da=sŭab=no da=duit=na-no.
m-paN-bali
AV-¿?-buywoman=DETOBL=clothesOBL=child=DETOBL=morning=DETOBL=money=3SG.GEN-DET
"The woman will buy clothes for the child in the morning with her money."
(2)Patient Voice
Bali-on konoon du=dŭanduʔ=ti da=dalaiŋ=no da=sŭab=no da=duit=na-no.
buy-PVclothesERG=woman=DETOBL=child=DETOBL=morning=DETOBL=money=3SG.GEN-DET
"The woman will buy clothes for the child in the morning with her money."
(or "Clothes will be bought for the child in the morning by the woman with her money.")
(3)Benefactive Voice
Bali-in dalaiŋ=no da=konoon du=dŭanduʔ=ti da=sŭab=no da=duit=na-no.
buy-BTchild=DETOBL=clothesERG=woman=DETOBL=morning=DETOBL=money=3SG.GEN-DET
"The woman will buy clothes for the child in the morning with her money."
(or "The child will be bought clothes for in the morning by the woman with her money.")
(4)Instrument Voice
Duit=na-no pambabali du=dŭanduʔ=ti da=konoon da=dalaiŋ=no da=sŭab=no.
paN-CV~bali
money=3SG.GEN-DET¿?-IV~buyERG=woman=DETOBL=clothesOBL=child=DETOBL=morning=DET
"The woman will buy clothes for the child in the morning with her money."
(or "Heri money will be bought clothes with for the child in the morning by the womani.")
(5)Circumstantial Voice
Sŭab=na pambalian du=dŭanduʔ=ti da=konoon da=dalaiŋ=no da=duit=na-no.
paN-bali-an
morning=DET¿?-buy-CVERG=woman=DETOBL=clothesOBL=child=DETOBL=money=3SG.GEN-DET
"The woman will buy clothes for the child in the morning with her money."
(or "The morning will be bought clothes in for the child by the woman with her money.")

Barito

The data below represent the Barito languages, and are from a language spoken on Madagascar, off the east coast of Africa. Other languages from Barito are spoken in Indonesia and the Philippines.

Malagasy

Malagasy[66] has three voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The circumstantial voice suffix selects for instrument and benefactee subjects.

Malagasy does not have a direct case marker. However, the subject is found in sentence-final position.

(1)Actor Voice
Mamono akoho amin'ny antsy ny mpamboly.
m-aN-vono
AV-TR-killchickenwith'DETknifeDETfarmer
"The farmer kills chickens with the knife."
(2)Patient Voice
Vonoin'ny mpamboly amin'ny antsy ny akoho.
vono-ina'ny
kill-PV'DETfarmerwith'DETknifeDETchicken
"The farmer kills the chickens with the knife."
(or "The chickens are killed with the knife by the farmer.")
(3)a. Circumstantial Voice (with instrument subject)
Amonoan'ny mpamboly akoho ny antsy.
aN-vono-ana'ny
TR-kill-CV'DETfarmerchickenDETknife
"The farmer kills chickens with the knife."
(or "The knife is killed chickens with by the farmer.")
(3)b.Circumstantial Voice (with benefactee subject)
Amonoan'ny mpamboly akoho ny vahiny.
aN-vono-ana'ny
TR-kill-CV'DETfarmerchickenDETguest
"The farmer kills chickens for the guests."
(or "The guests are killed chickens for by the farmer.")

Non-Austronesian examples

Alignment types resembling Austronesian alignment have been observed in non-Austronesian languages.

Nilotic

Dinka Bor

Van Urk (2015) suggests that Dinka Bor, which is a Nilotic language spoken in South Sudan, exhibits Austronesian alignment. This language has three voices: Actor Voice, Patient Voice, and Circumstantial Voice.

The subject is found in sentence-initial position, before the verb. The non-finite form of the verb found in the examples[67] below is câam "eat".

(1)Actor Voice
Àyén à-c‹à›m cuî̤in nè̤ pǎal.
Ayen3SG-‹AV›eatfoodPREPknife
"Ayen is eating food with a knife."
(2)Patient Voice
Cuî̤in à-c‹ɛ́ɛ›m Áyèn nè̤ pǎal.
food3SG-‹PV›eatAyen.ERGPREPknife
"Ayen is eating food with a knife."
(or "Food is being eaten by Ayen with a knife.")
(3)Circumstantial Voice[68]
Pǎal à-c‹ɛ́ɛ›m-è̤ Áyèn cuî̤in.
knife3SG-‹PV›eat-CVAyen.ERGfood
"Ayen is eating food with a knife."
(or "The knife is being eaten food with by Ayen.")

Notes

Glosses

Here is a list of the abbreviations used in the glosses:

1 first person  DET determiner  LT locative voice  TR transitive
2 second person  DIR direct case  M masculine  ¿? morpheme of unknown semantics
3 third person  ERG ergative case  NAT non-Actor Voice
ACC accusative case  F feminine  NMLZ nominalizer
AN animate  GEN genitive case  OBL oblique case
ASP aspect  GT goal voice  PL plural
AT Actor Voice  INAN inanimate  PREP preposition
AUX auxiliary verb  IND indirect case  PT patient voice
BT benefactive voice  INDF indefinite  RL realis mood
CT circumstantial voice  IT instrument voice  RT reason voice
DEF definite  LIG ligature  SG singular

Endnotes

  1. Taken from Blust (2013, p. 439), Table 7.2. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  2. Taken from Liu (2011, p. 27), examples in (2.5). Glosses and translation modified for the Wikipedia article.
    Liu: "Actor Trigger", "Patient Trigger", "Location Trigger", "Instrument Trigger"
    Here: "Actor Voice", "Patient Voice", "Locative Voice", "Instrument Voice"
  3. Taken from Liu (2011, p. 44), examples in (2.30). Glosses and translation modified for the Wikipedia article.
    Liu: "Actor Trigger", "Patient Trigger", "Location Trigger", "Beneficiary/Instrument Trigger"
    Here: "Actor Voice", "Patient Voice", "Locative Voice", "Circumstantial Voice"
  1. See p. 188. Kaufman, Daniel. (2009). Austronesian typology and the nominalist hypothesis. In A. Adelaar & A. Pawley (Eds.), Austronesian Historical Linguistics and Culture History: A Festschrift for Robert Blust (pp. 187–215).
  2. Blust (2013), p. 436.
  3. Beguš, Gašper. (2016). "The Origins of the Voice/Focus System in Austronesian". Presented at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS42).
  4. Himmelmann, N. P. (2002). Voice in western Austronesian: An update. In F. Wouk & M. Ross (Eds.), The History and Typology of western Austronesian voice systems (pp. 7-15). Canberra, ACT: Australian National University.
  5. Starosta, Stanley. (2002). Austronesian ‘Focus’ as Derivation: Evidence from Nominalization. Language and Linguistics, 3(2), 427-479.
  6. Hemmings, Charlotte. (2015). Kelabit Voice: Philippine‐Type, Indonesian‐Type or Something a Bit Different? Transactions of the Philological Society, 113(3), 383-405.
  7. Liao, Liao, H. C. (2011). Some morphosyntactic differences between Formosan and Philippine languages. Language and Linguistics, 12(4), 845-876.
  8. Kroeger, Paul. (2007). Morphosyntactic vs. morphosemantic functions of Indonesian –kan. In A. Zaenen et al. (Eds.), Architectures, Rules, and Preferences: Variations on Themes of Joan Bresnan (pp. 229-251).
  9. Huang, Shuan-fan. (2002). The pragmatics of focus in Tsou and Seediq. Language and Linguistics, 3(4), 665-694.
  10. Fortin, Catherine. (2003). Syntactic and Semantic Valence: Morphosyntactic Evidence from Minangkabau. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS 29).
  11. Ross (2002, p. 20)
  12. Taken from Shiohara (2012)'s examples in (4a-b) on page 60, and in (12) on page 63. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  13. Taken from Liu (2017)'s examples in (52) to (56). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  14. Taken from Pan (2012)'s examples in (3.16b), (3.23a), (3.32d) and (3.33a). Glosses and translation modified for the Wikipedia article.
  15. The orthography used in this subsection does not conform to the orthography used in Pan (2012) with respect to the consonant /ɬ/. Whereas Pan (2012) represents this sound as ‹lh›, this sound is represented here as ‹hl› (Pan (2012; page 50)).
  16. Taken from Liu (2014)'s examples in (5a), (5c), (17a), and (20a). Glosses and translation modified for the Wikipedia article.
  17. Taken from Lee (2016)'s examples in (24), and (25). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  18. Taken from Ross and Teng (2005)'s examples in (2). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  19. Taken from Li (2000)'s examples in (22), (39), and (58), and Li (2002)'s example in (15). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  20. Taken from Aldridge (2015)'s examples in (7), and Cauquelin (1991)'s example on page 44. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  21. While this example may come from Cauquelin (1991), the orthography used here conforms to the orthography used in Aldridge (2015).
  22. Taken from Kuo (2015)'s examples in (2.1) on page 14. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  23. Taken from Tsukida (2012)'s examples in (3). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  24. Taken from Huang and Huang (2007)'s examples in III in the Appendix, pages 449-450. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  25. Zeitoun (2005), page 266
  26. Zeitoun (2005), page 267 ("actor voice" and "undergoer voice", respectively, in her terminology).
  27. In their gloss for this example, Huang and Huang (2007, page 450) suggest that the benefactive voice suffix attaches to a stem composed of the verb and the locative voice ("locative voice" in their terminology).
  28. Taken from Reid (1966)'s examples on pages 26 and 27. Glosses and translation modified for the Wikipedia article.
  29. The orthography used for the data here reflects the transcription system used by Reid (1966). It seems that, from the Wikipedia article on Ivatan, this may not be the actual spelling system that the speakers of this language use. The sound represented by ‹q› is /ʔ/.
  30. Reid (1966; pp 25-27) presents an alternative form for the verb in locative voice. Instead of appearing with the 'pang-' prefix, a verb of this class in locative voice form may appear with just the '-an' suffix. For this example, instead of 'pangamoqmoan', the verb would be 'qamoqmoan'. Reid indicates that the distinction between these two forms is that the patient of the action must be explicit for the form appearing without the 'pang-' prefix.
  31. Reid (1966; pp 25-27) presents an alternative form for the verb in circumstantial voice, when it selects for instrument subjects. Instead of appearing with the 'pang-' prefix, a verb of this class in circumstantial voice form may appear with just the 'qi-' prefix. For this example, instead of 'qipangamoqmo', the verb would be 'qimoqmo'. Reid indicates that the distinction between these two forms is that the patient of the action must be explicit for the form appearing without the 'pang-' prefix.
  32. Reid (1966; pp 25-27) does not present any alternative form for verbs of this class in circumstantial voice, when they select for benefactee subjects.
  33. Taken from Huang (2014)'s examples in (3a-d) on page 251. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  34. Taken from Abrams (1970)'s examples on page 2. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  35. Abrams (1970, pages 1-2) indicates that Blaan verbs are classified into three types of prefocus bases, each of which has an inherent voice without bearing any voice affixes. An agent prefocus base is a bare verb that is inherently in Actor Voice voice. A patient prefocus base is inherently in patient voice, and an instrument prefocus base is inherently in instrument voice.
  36. Blaan has two morphemes which, when attached to a prefocus base, change the inherent voice of the base. These morphemes are the Actor Voice affix, m-/-am-, and the non-Actor Voice affix, n-/-an- ("subject focus" and "non-subject focus" in Abrams (1970, page 1)'s terminology, respectively).
  37. Abrams (1970, page 2) has not found many examples of an agent prefocus base taking either of the voice-changing morphemes. However, in that rare example in which an agent prefocus base does, both voice-changing morphemes transitivize the intransitive agent prefocus base. In addition, the Actor Voice affix keeps the base in Actor Voice voice, while the non-Actor Voice affix changes the voice of the base to non-Actor Voice voice, and allows for the selection of a patient subject.
  38. Without any voice-changing morphemes, patient prefocus bases take patient subjects. The Actor Voice affix changes the voice of the base to Actor Voice voice, allowing the verb to take an agent subject. The non-Actor Voice affix allows a patient prefocus base to take location subjects.
  39. The Actor Voice affix changes the inherent instrument voice of the base to Actor Voice voice, whereas the non-Actor Voice affix changes the voice to non-Actor Voice voice, and allows for the selection of a patient subject.
  40. Taken from Bell (1976)'s examples on pages 8, 9, and 11. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  41. Taken from Travis (2010)'s examples in (46) on page 42. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  42. Taken from Mirikitani (1972)'s examples in (64), (95), (96), (100), (101) and (106). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  43. In the examples, the word to which the accusative case marker attaches is a pronoun or portmanteau pronoun that is obligatorily present in the same clause as the noun with which it is co-referential. In sentences with an Actor Voice, the pronoun co-refers with the agent subject. In sentences with a non-Actor Voice, the portmanteau pronoun co-refers with both the ergative agent and the non-agent subject, which is marked with direct case.
  44. Taken from Ferreirinho (1993)'s examples in (100), (245), (246), (247) and (248). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  45. The patient voice suffix surfaces either as -on or as -∅. The choice of allomorph depends on whether or not the verb is marked with the -in- aspectual infix. When the aspectual infix is present, the -∅ allomorph surfaces.
  46. Taken from McKaughan (1962)'s examples on pages 48 and 50, and from McKaughan (1970)'s example in (4). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  47. Taken from Tryon (1994)'s examples on pages 35 and 36. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  48. The patient voice suffix surfaces either as -in or as -∅. The choice of allomorph depends on whether or not the verb is marked with the -in- aspectual infix. When the aspectual infix is present, the -∅ allomorph surfaces.
  49. The subject in (6a) is the nominalization of the adverbial clause in (6b).
  50. Taken from Sneddon (1970)'s examples on page 13, and from Sneddon (1975)'s examples on pages 63 and 66. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  51. Taken from Boutin (2002)'s examples in (3), and (4) on page 211, (6) and (7) on page 212, and in (44) on page 222. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  52. Boutin (2002; pp. 211-212) presents other voice-related data. However, because these are periphrastic constructions, they are of no interest for the purposes of this Wikipedia article.
  53. The patient voice suffix surfaces either as -idn or as -∅. The choice of allomorph depends on whether or not the verb is marked with the -in- realis mood morpheme. When the realis mood morpheme is present, the -∅ allomorph surfaces.
  54. Hemmings (2016), p. 270: "Taken from examples in (39). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article."
  55. Hemmings (2016), p. 200: "Taken from examples in (189a-c). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article."
  56. Hemmings (2016) presents examples in which the subject in patient voice appears before the verb, and in which the subject in Actor Voice voice appears after the verb
  57. Hemmings (2016), pp. 202-203.
  58. The patient voice suffix has two allomorphs, -en and -∅. The former occurs in non-perfective contexts, whereas the latter in perfective contexts.
  59. Taken from Kroeger (2005)'s examples in (20a-c), page 405, and from Kroeger (2017)'s examples in (5), (6a) and (7). The orthography used here conforms to the orthography used in Kroeger (2017). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  60. Kroeger (2017), page 5.
  61. According to Kroeger (2005; page 415, table (45)), the patient voice suffix has two allomorphs, -on and -∅. The former occurs in non-past contexts, whereas the latter in past contexts. The locative voice suffix does not exhibit such allomorphy, and can appear in both past and non-past contexts.
  62. According to Kroeger (2010; page 8), the instrument voice prefix has two allomorphs, i-, and ∅-. The latter surfaces in the presence of the transitivity prefix, poN-.
  63. The sentence in this example exhibits a pseudocleft construction with a relative clause as the subject, and a WH-word as the predicate. The instrument voice prefix selects a null operator within the relative clause. This null operator serves as the head of the relative clause, which can be interpreted as "the thing that...".
  64. The sentence in this example exhibits a pseudocleft construction with a relative clause as the subject, and a WH-word as the predicate. The locative voice suffix selects a null operator within the relative clause. This null operator serves as the head of the relative clause, which can be interpreted as "the thing that...".
  65. Taken from Prentice (1965)'s examples on pages 130 and 131. Glosses and translations for the Wikipedia article.
  66. Taken from Pearson (2005)'s examples in (2) and (10c). Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  67. Taken from van Urk (2015)'s example (2) on page 61. Glosses and translations modified for the Wikipedia article.
  68. Van Urk (2015, page 69) indicates that the circumstantial voice suffix is attached to a stem composed of the verb and the patient voice ("object voice" in van Urk's terminology).

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