Alwar located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the state of Rajasthan. Alwar is a hub of tourism with several forts, lakes, heritage havelis and nature reserves, including the Bhangarh Fort, the Sariska Tiger Reserve and Siliserh lake.
Tiger Gate of Rajasthan
|Coordinates: 27.549780°N 76.635539°E|
|Founded by||Vikrami samvat|
|• Urban||8,380 km2 (3,240 sq mi)|
|Elevation||268 m (879 ft)|
|• Rank||8th in Rajasthan|
|• Density||38/km2 (97/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||RJ-IN|
The history of Alwar dates back to 1000 CE. The king of Amer (the former seat of Jaipur state) ruled the area in the eleventh century and his territory extended up to the present-day city of Alwar. He founded the city of Alpur in 1106 Vikrami samvat (1049 CE) under his own name, which eventually became Alwar. From time to time, a different Rajput sub-clan came to rule Alwar. Examples include the Khanzada Rajputs, the Nikumbh Rajputs, the Badgujjar Rajputs, and finally the Naruka (Kachwaha) Rajputs who took the control over this area. Bhadanakas (Bhadana) clan of Gurjar, The Maratha Empire also ruled this region for a short period. A Rajput, Partap Singh, took the Alwar Fort from the Jat Raja of Bharatpur and laid down the foundation for modern day Alwar.
The Hindu King Hemchandra Vikramaditya (Hemu), born into a Brahmin family in Machari, Rajgarh, a village in Alwar, was a Hindu emperor of North India during the 16th century. This was a period when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power in the region. Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556 after defeating Akbar's Mughal forces in the Battle of Delhi in the Tughlakabad area in Delhi, and became the de facto king. He won twenty-two battles in succession and became the last Hindu emperor of India.
Alwar State, a princely state established in 1770, was established by a Kachwaha Rajput named Pratap Singh who was earlier a jagirdar of "Dhai Gaon" (two-and-a-half villages) near Machari. His successor "Bakhtawar Singh Kachwaha" was defeated after launching an armed incursion into neighbouring Jaipur State (ruled by their Kachwaha seniors, erstwhile overlords of his predecessor) and being forced to accept the consequent treaty mediated by East India Company prohibiting him from political relations with other states without the consent of the colonial British. According to the "Gazetteer of Ulwar" published by the British raj, Alwar State was subdivided into four regions:
- Rath region: current Behror and Neemrana, was ruled by Lah Chauhan rajput zamindar who had descended from Prithviraj Chauhan. Sahesh Mal was a son of Raja Sangat Singh Chauhan. Sangat was the great grandson of Chahir Deo Chauhan, brother of famous rajput king Prithviraj Chauhan. In accordance with the pledge by the raja Sangat Singh Chauhan to his younger queen for marrying her in his old age, her two sons from him were bestowed the Rath area and its headquarter of Mandhan near Neemrana. King Sangat Singh Chauhan's 19 sons from the older queen set out to seek their fortunes. Of the 19 brothers, Harsh Dev Chauhan and Sahesh Mal Chauhan arrived in the Gurgaon district. Lah Chauhan, the ruler of Rath, was a son of raja Sangat Singh Chauhan by the younger Rani whose two sons became inheritors of Raja Sangat Singh's territory of Rath with its headquarter at Mandhan when other 19 sons from the other wives were required to quit the kingdom as per the promise of Raja Sangat.
- Wai region: current Bansur and Thana Ghazi, was ruled by Shekhawat rajput zamindars.
- Narukhand region: current Rajgarh and Laxmangarh, was ruled by Naruka sub-branch of Kachwaha rajputs who were from the same branch as the ruling kings of the Alwar State
- Mewat region: current Palwal and Nuh districts, had the highest population of the Meo Muslims.
Alwar acceded to the dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947. On 18 March 1948, the state merged with three neighbouring princely states (Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli) to form the Matsya Union. On 15 May 1949, it was united with neighbouring princely states and the territory of Ajmer to form the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan. Alwar was designated as part of the National Capital Region, resulting in additional development projects including rapid-rail to Delhi and drinking water improvements. The military cantonment of Itarana lies on the outskirts of Alwar.
Alwar is the first major city when travelling from Delhi to Rajasthan. The city's heritage, apart from being a draw for tourists, has been an attraction for Bollywood film shoots including Shakespeare Wallah, Maharaja (1998), Karan Arjun at Sariska palace and Dadikar fort and Bhangarh, Saajan Chale Sasural at Sariska palace, Talaash: The Hunt Begins... and Trip to Bhangarh. The Mega Alwar trade fair is held at Dusshera ground every year. Alwar is also known for its hand-made Papier-mâché.
The Fairy Queen, a national treasure (cultural artifact) of India and the world's oldest working locomotive engine (c. 1855 CE), operates as a tourist luxury train between Delhi and Alwar.
Bala Qila (lit. "High Fort"), also known as Alwar Fort, is a fort approximately 300 meters above the city, founded by the 15th-century Khanzada Rajput ruler Hasan Khan Mewati and built on the foundations of a 10th-century mud fort. Situated on the Aravalli Range, the fort is 5 kilometres long and about 1.5 kilometres wide with turrets, a large gate, a temple, and a residential area.
The City Palace, also known as Vinay Vilas Mahal, built in 1793 CE by Raja Bakhtawar Singh, blends the Rajputana and Islamic architectural styles and has marble pavilions on lotus-shaped bases in its courtyard. The palace houses a state museum with a collection of manuscripts, including one depicting Emperor Babur’s life, Ragamala paintings and miniatures, and historic swords that once belonged to Muhammad Ghori, Emperor Akbar and Aurangzeb; and a golden Durbar hall. This palace that once belonged to the Maharaja (lit. Great Ruler) has now been converted into a District Administrative office also housing the District Court.
Moosi Maharani ki Chhatri
This cenotaph was built by Vinay Singh in the memory of King Bakhtawar Singh and his queen, Moosi, in 1815.
Sariska Tiger Reserve
The Sariska Tiger Reserve, a National Park and Tiger Reserve, is located in the Aravali hills only a few kilometres away from Alwar. Declared a Wildlife reserve in 1955 and a National Park in 1982, it is the first reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers. The sanctuary, which became a part of India's Project Tiger in 1978, also preserves other species including rare birds and plants.
Bhangarh Fort, branded as the fourth most haunted palace in the world, and the most haunted palace in Asia, is a 17th-century fort built by Bhagwant das for his younger son Madho Singh I. The fort, a monument protected by the Archaeological Survey of India and is known for its association to legends and paranormal activities, is a tourist attraction for visitors across the world.
Ashoka's Buddhist stupa
Nearby Viratnagar there is a Buddhist stupa and an inscription from the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. According to legends, Pandavas spent some time in their ignorance here. There are a large number of religious devotees on the Pandupole-Bharthari Loktirtha. Alwar contains a number of historical monuments, such as 'Deewan ji ki lal haweli', which was built in 1754 and owned by Rajendra Kumar jain.
Hill Fort Kesroli
Bharthari temple is dedicated to the king of Ujjain, who became a saint and is now commonly known as Baba Bharthari. He is sometimes identified with Bhartṛhari, a 7th-century poet. He is revered and prayed to, the temple is visited by the local population, and a fair is also organized each year known as 'Bharthari Baba ka Mela'.there is a temple of hanuman baba in ghata bhanwar tehsil kathumar
As of 2019, the most commonly used forms of medium-distance transport in Alwar are government-owned services such as railways and buses, as well as privately operated lok pariwahan buses, taxis and auto rickshaws. Bus services operate from the Alwar old Bus Station which is 5 km away from the Alwar railway junction. In addition to this it is also planned that a metro rail system from Delhi to Alwar via Behror route will be started. The nearest airports to Alwar are Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi (143 km away), Jaipur International Airport (150 km away), and an airport currently under development in Bhiwadi airport (90 km away). Alwar Junction railway station, on the Delhi–Jaipur line, is connected with Delhi, Jaipur, and Mumbai. Alwar is connected by roads from major cities of Rajasthan and nearby states.
Geography and climate
Alwar is located at 27.57°N 76.6°E. It has an average elevation of 271 m (889 ft). The Ruparail River is a major river near the city. Alwar is fairly rich in mineral wealth; it produces marble, granite, feldspar, dolomite, quartz, limestone, soap stone, barites, copper clay, copper ore and pyrophylite.
|Population Growth of Alwar City|
At the time of the 2011 census, the population of Alwar city and Alwar district were 341,422 and 1,015,310 respectively, with Hindus representing 90.7% of the population, Muslims representing 4.3%, Sikhs representing 2.6%, Jains representing 2.1%, and the remaining 1.3% belonging to other religions.
Raj Rishi Bhartrihari Matsya University was established in 2012-13. Alwar has several schools such as Kendriya Vidyalaya,Knowledge City School Adinath Public School, Chinar Public School, Alwar Public School, St. Anslem's Senior Secondary School and Silver Oak, and colleges (Raj Rishi college, Siddhi Vinayak College, Presidency College, Government Law College, KCRI College, IET College). The Employee's State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Medical College is constructed with a whooping INR 800 crore budget and started operating from 2017.
Notable people from Alwar include the actress Sakshi Tanwar, the entrepreneur Rahul Yadav, the military commander Pran Sukh Yadav (1802–1888) and the most decorated Army officer Saurabh Singh Shekhawat.
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