2014 Egyptian constitutional referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt on 14 and 15 January 2014[1] and with Egyptians abroad voting between 8 and 12 January.[2] The new constitution was approved by 98.1% of voters. Turnout was 38.6%.[3]

Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2014
Results
Votes %
Yes 19,985,389 98.13%
No 381,341 1.87%
Valid votes 20,366,730 98.80%
Invalid or blank votes 246,947 1.20%
Total votes 20,613,677 100.00%
Registered voters/turnout 53,423,485 38.59%
Results by Governorate
  Yes     No
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Background

President Mohamad Morsi was removed from power during the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.[4] The timetable established by interim president Adly Mansour envisioned a rapid transition, which initially entailed amending the suspended 2012 constitution.[4]

The process of amending the 2012 constitution began with a committee of 10 legal experts.[5] The draft amendments by the committee of 10 made many notable changes to the text of the 2012 constitution.[6] The committee of 10 completed their work on 20 August 2013.[7]

The second phase of the process included amendments by a committee of 50; those 50 people were announced on 1 September 2013.[8] Amr Moussa was chosen as the chairman of the committee of 50 on 8 September 2013.[9] The draft constitution was given to President Mansour on 3 December 2013.[10]

Campaign

Supporters

The Dignity Party backed the constitution.[11] The Free Egyptians Party supported it.[12] The Socialist Popular Alliance Party as well as the Socialist Party of Egypt also supported the constitution.[11] The Popular Current had said that it supported the constitution.[13] The Nour Party said it would support the constitution.[14] Tamarod started a campaign on 5 December 2013 in support of the constitution.[15] The Egyptian Trade Union Federation called on its supporters to vote for the constitution.[16] The National Salvation Front said that it would call for a yes vote on the constitution.[17] The Egyptian Social Democratic Party voted for the constitution.[18]

Opponents

Khaled Ali, a former presidential candidate, was opposed to the constitution; he stated that it was "inappropriate" for Egypt.[19] The Revolutionary Socialists also expressed their opposition to it.[20] The Road of the Revolution Front announced on 8 January 2014 that it would vote against the constitution.[21] The Freedom and Justice Party and the Islamic Bloc, which had won 65.3% of the vote in Egypt's parliamentary elections in 2011-2012, opposed the new Constitution and the referendum as being the fruits of an illegal military coup.[22]

Boycotts

The Anti-Coup Alliance, which includes the Muslim Brotherhood-linked Freedom and Justice Party, announced on 22 December 2013 that it would boycott the vote.[23] The Strong Egypt Party and the April 6 Youth Movement also indicated that they would boycott the vote.[24] The Strong Egypt Party was initially going to mobilize for a "no" vote,[25] but changed their stance after members of the party were arrested for having posters which supported the "no" campaign.[26]

According to the official results, turnout was 38.9%. Turnout in the constitutional referendum of 2012 had been 32.9%.[3]

Conduct

Tamarod,[27] the European Union[28] and 27,000 observers were expected to monitor the referendum; judges affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood were excluded from supervising polling stations.[29]

According to Human Rights Watch, 11 people were killed in the clashes on 14 January 2014.[30] However, according to the Health ministry, 8 people died in the first day of voting[30] and two people died in the second day of voting.[31]

In the weeks before the voting there were massive arrests of persons opposing the Constitution or the referendum.[32]

Results

Voter participation was about 38.6 percent according to Egyptian government figures that were challenged by the Muslim Brotherhood, which had called of a boycott because the vote was taking place after a military coup. There were almost 20 million total votes in favor. The vote was held with support for a "yes" vote by the Egyptian government and state media as well as a crackdown on those against it.[33]

For comparison, about 16.7 million voters participated in the vote approving the constitution drafted under Morsi. This represented a turnout of 32.9 percent despite a boycott of the vote by non-Islamist factions. Of those that participated in that election, 63.8 percent voted for the Morsi-backed constitution, or about 10.65 million "yes" votes.[33]

Choice Votes %
Yes 19,985,389 98.13
No 381,341 1.87
Valid votes 20,366,730 98.8
Invalid or blank votes 246,947 1.2
Total votes 20,613,677 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 53,423,485 38.6
Source: Al Ahram

By governorate

GovernorateEligible votersVoter turnoutTurnout %Total votesValid votesInvalid votes"Yes" votes"Yes" %"No" votes"No" %
Cairo6,674,8652,688,74340.3%2,791,2332,762,95228,2812,720,16298.5%42,7901.5%
Giza4,518,9411,450,19532.1%1,507,4161,488,66218,7541,459,20198.0%29,4612.0%
Dakahlia3,793,0801,876,90149.5%1,891,6171,874,59717,0201,850,53598.7%24,0621.3%
Sharqia3,681,5871,666,49345.3%1,691,3601,673,96817,3921,646,73698.4%27,2321.6%
Alexandria3,415,6291,308,97138.3%1,353,6321,340,44913,1831,319,45498.4%20,9951.6%
Beheira3,376,9411,260,62437.3%1,276,9801,260,50316,4771,234,01997.9%26,4842.1%
Gharbia3,020,6741,574,17352.1%1,586,4961,572,17614,3201,551,09398.7%21,0831.3%
Minya2,808,534734,51226.2%740,233723,19317,040698,62196.6%24,5723.4%
Qalyubia2,718,7981,204,97144.3%1,231,0321,217,22013,8121,198,01198.4%19,2091.6%
Sohag2,485,950592,39123.8%600,503591,4969,007574,79797.2%16,6992.8%
Monufia2,298,2081,226,15453.4%1,242,2191,228,81113,4081,212,26898.7%16,5431.3%
Asyut2,219,387538,87324.3%547,539536,53211,007515,57196.1%20,9613.9%
Kafr el-Sheikh1,935,985817,90442.2%823,516815,0388,478803,94098.6%11,0981.4%
Qena1,676,423400,66823.9%410,770405,0645,706395,43997.6%9,6252.4%
Faiyum1,628,192385,60123.7%391,609383,3848,225370,80296.7%12,5823.3%
Beni Suef1,506,498490,67032.6%496,172486,3609,812469,97496.6%16,3863.4%
Aswan891,699251,58828.2%257,563254,0883,475248,57197.8%5,5172.2%
Damietta891,241408,61745.8%415,825411,2334,592404,68798.4%6,5461.6%
Ismailia735,103290,68939.5%299,606295,6713,935289,86398.0%5,8082.0%
Luxor703,670215,66830.6%220,606218,2032,403214,51098.3%3,6931.7%
Port Said453,377231,43951.0%239,772237,1882,584233,67298.5%3,5161.5%
Suez396,466136,65834.5%144,919143,2841,635140,16797.8%3,1172.2%
Red Sea244,60377,68131.8%108,147106,7581,389103,85897.3%2,9002.7%
North Sinai223,53369,21731.0%75,96874,5571,41172,16196.8%2,3963.2%
Matruh224,38536,44516.2%44,72543,91081542,24296.2%1,6683.8%
New Valley147,52551,92335.2%52,87751,7691,10849,92096.4%1,8493.6%
South Sinai70,84523,80433.6%64,30163,1231,17860,65196.1%2,4723.9%

Reactions

  •  Russia - President Vladimir Putin was the first president to congratulate Egyptians on the constitution as he asked the new Egyptian ambassador in Russia to convey the best wishes to the Egyptian leadership saying: "We hope the Egyptian society will overcome current political and socio-economic difficulties and the country will return on the path of stability and growth."[34]
  •  UAE - Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan congratulated the Egyptian people saying: "The move is major milestone towards the roadmap for the future which will usher sisterly Egypt into the aspired stability and development."[35]
  •  Iraq - Nouri Al-Maliki congratulated the Egyptian people saying that the overwhelming support for the constitution shown in polls reflects the Egyptian people's strong will to reject violence and terrorism and strive for peace, stability and freedom.[36]

See also

References

  1. Gregg Carlstrom (14 December 2013). "Egypt president sets date for referendum". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  2. "Polls closed overseas Sunday". Mada Masr. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  3. "Egyptians overwhelmingly back constitution - official results". Aswat Masriya. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  4. "Egypt's timetable for transition to elections". Associated Press. 9 July 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  5. "Mansour to form committee in charge of constitutional amendments". Egypt Independent. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  6. "22 Key Points in Egypt's New Draft Constitution". Al Monitor. 23 August 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  7. "Amended draft of Egyptian constitution passed to president". Aswat Masriya. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  8. "Members of constitutional committee of 50 announced". Egypt Independent. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  9. "50-member constitutional committee chooses Amr Moussa as chairman". Egypt Independent. 8 September 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  10. "Mansour receives amended constitution". Daily News Egypt. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  11. "Parties start campaigns to support new constitution". Egypt Independent. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  12. "Egypt's Free Egyptians Party distributes Braille draft constitution at rally". Ahram Online. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  13. "Al-Tayar Al-Sha'aby calls for Yes vote in constitutional referendum, supports Sabahy for Presidency". Daily News Egypt. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  14. "Nour Party not running for presidency : leading member". Egypt Independent. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  15. "Tamarod launches campaign urging participation in constitution referendum". Egypt Independent. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  16. "Vote Yes to the constitution: ETUF". Daily News Egypt. 24 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  17. "Salvation Front calls for voting 'yes' to amendments". Egypt Independent. 10 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  18. "Egyptian Social Democratic Party will vote 'Yes' in constitution referendum". Ahram Online. 22 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  19. "Khaled Ali says constitution not appropriate for Egypt". Egypt Independent. 7 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  20. "Revolutionary Socialists call for "no" vote on constitution". Aswat Masriya. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  21. "Way of the Revolution Front to vote no to constitution". Ahram Online. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  22. "Freedom and Justice Party: Declaration Unconstitutional, Null and Void".
  23. "Egypt's pro-Morsi coalition to boycott constitutional referendum". Ahram Online. 22 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  24. "Strong Egypt, April 6 boycott referendum". Egypt Independent. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  25. "Strong Egypt Party members arrested after posting 'no' campaign material". Mada Masr. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  26. "Strong Egypt Party to boycott the referendum". Ahram Online. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  27. "Tamarod to oversee constitution referendum". Egypt Independent. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  28. "EU monitors Constitution referendum". Egypt Independent. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  29. "27,000 observers to monitor referendum". The Cairo Post. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  30. "Death toll rises to 11 overnight following bloody afternoon". Daily News Egypt. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  31. "Health Ministry: Two deaths, 8 injured on second day of referendum". Egypt Independent. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  32. "Egypt: Activists Arrested for 'No' Campaign: Repression Intensifies Ahead of Constitutional Referendum". Human Rights Watch. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  33. "Egypt constitution gets 98.1% 'yes' vote". The Associated Press. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  34. "Putin congratulates Egyptians on constitution".
  35. "HH Sheikh Abdullah bin ZayedAl Nahyan congratulates Egyptian people on success of constitutional referendum".
  36. "Iraqi PM congratulates Egypt on new charter".
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